when I was a kid, solid state was all the rage. The truth is that by building circuits that only do what they are supposed to, they discovered all the hacks that, well... hackers, had been doing to make systems function only one way. When they put a solid state device in a consumer product, they found that the consumer product was full of special connections made specifically to keep them from adding solid state devices. So teachers from my era would say... you either learn solid state, or you learn electronics.. theres no way to learn both. Round about 1997 the PC evolved from ISA(industrial standard application) to PCI(which I never did learn what it meant) which was known as a completely experimental port. if you ask a solid state programmer what the right hand rule is, they will probably say they don't know. if you ask a hacker(who used to be a good ISA programmer) how to reprogram an EEPROM, they might throw a breadboard at you. All you guys... looking at one another like you are right and they are wrong... made me think. What kind of mess have I gotten myself into? I thought this would be easy, and I can't get my resistors out of my ram. With no system to convert solid state to ISA, or analog data to digital stream, this business we are in, is in peril. We need some good old fashioned circuits that can bypass, convert, prescribe, and deduce, the common problems that are found. Hey the old toothpick in the heatsink ain't what it used to be.