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Trying to understand transistors

Discussion in 'General Electronics Discussion' started by Rob_K, Sep 21, 2013.

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  1. Rob_K

    Rob_K

    59
    0
    Sep 20, 2013
    Dear All,

    I found this circuit for a latching switch using transistors and it works brilliantly, I've had it up and running.

    Simple transistor latch

    Now, I can see how it works, no current moves through the circuit until NPN transistor T1 is triggered, thus pulling current through the base of the PNP transistor T2 allowing current to flow and activate the relay whilst also sending current through R3 back to the base of T1. Also I totally see where the capacitor comes in, the circuit just doesn't work without it, it just trips as soon as you connect power.

    Two little questions to help me understand this. Firstly, I have used an electrolytic capacitor, as I couldn't find a ceramic one amongst my gubbins, but it seems to me the capacitor could potentially receive current from either pole, is this correct or am I barking up the wrong tree?

    Also, I am having difficulty understanding why R4 is in this circuit and what it's purpose is.

    Some clarity would be marvellous. Thanks in advance.

    Rob
     
  2. Harald Kapp

    Harald Kapp Moderator Moderator

    10,363
    2,261
    Nov 17, 2011
    An electrolytic capacitor is fine as long as the anode is connected to the positive voltage rail. How could it possibly receive a reverse voltage? I can't see a way.

    R4 is there to ensure that T2 is definitely off unless triggered by T1. R4 holds the base of T2 at positive potential. Only a negative potential (negative with respect to the emitter) will turn on T2.
     
  3. Rob_K

    Rob_K

    59
    0
    Sep 20, 2013
    Yes that makes perfect sense in both cases, thanks Harold for clearing this up for me.
     
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