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Simple Adding Maching basics.

Discussion in 'Electronic Basics' started by gimp, Apr 24, 2004.

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  1. gimp

    gimp Guest

    Hi, I am trying to learn some of the basics of logic chips. How can I
    count pulses to a register? How can I add the contents of two
    registers? Are there any simple calculation/calculator schematics out
    there? Is it possible to multiply the contents of a register by 10?

    I'd like to use discrete logic chips, or relays. Anyone with an idea
    of how I could start would be a great help to hear from. Thanks.

    Nathanial Hendler
    Tucson, AZ USA
    http://retards.org/
     
  2. If you want to count successive cycles of logic state changes, you
    need a toggle flip flop chain. Each flip flop has two stable states
    and it toggles between these during one of the two transitions in a
    logic cycle (Either the zero to one transition or the one to zero
    transition. Both types are made.) The first flip flop will cycle
    through its two logic stated for every two cycles of the input. If
    the output of the first flip flop is connected to the toggle input of
    a second flip flop, that one will cycle through its two states for
    every 4 input cycles, etc.

    one side of this string of flip flops (one output on each one) hold a
    binary number that counts the number of input cycles.

    See:
    http://www.play-hookey.com/digital/ripple_counter.html
    The simplest logic family to experiment with is the 4000 series CMOS
    logic family. They operate off 3 to 18 volts, use little power and
    are cheap and available lots of places.
    Here is a page that lists some of the available functions with access
    ot their data sheets:
    http://www.onsemi.com/site/products/parts/0,4454,395,00.html
    The toggle flip flops are 4027 (dual JK flip flop) that has gating to
    enable or disable the toggling in either direction for more
    complicated counters.

    Adding binary values is pretty simple.
    http://www.cs.may.ie/~sdunne/CS110/BinAdders.pdf

    Multiplication and division are much more complicated. The exception
    is multiplication or division by a power of two. These can be
    accomplished by shifting bits left or right, since each binary bit
    position represents twice as big a value as the next smaller bit. So
    multiplication of a constant like 10 (decimal) involves breaking 10
    into a bunch of values that add up to 10 and shifting the bit pattern
    the right number of positions to represent each of those simple
    multiplications. Then you add all those different products together
    (or add them up in sequence as they are produced.

    For example, if you have the binary number for 12 (decimal) 1100
    (binary representing 1*2^3 + 1*2^2 + 1*2^1 + 0*2^0 or 1*8 + 1*4 + 0*2
    + 0*1 ), most significant digit on left) and want to multiply it by 10
    (decimal) 1010 (binary) you break 10 down into the powers of 2 that
    make up 10 and shift the 12 by those power positions and add them up.
    Since 10 is the sum of 8 and 2, the addition uses copies of the 12
    pattern only shifted left 1 and 3 times. For the 0 and 2 shift
    positions the 12 pattern is not added.

    1100000 (12 shifted left 3 bits, so 3 zeros are appended on its
    right)
    000000
    + 11000 (12 shifted one bit left, so one zero is appended to its
    right)
    0000
    _________
    1111000 (total of all required shifted 12's)

    This answer is:
    1*2^6 + 1*2^5 + 1*2^4 + 0*2^3 + 0*2^2 + 0*2^1 + 0*2^0
    0r 64 + 32 + 16 + 8 + 0 + 0 + 0 = 120 = 10*12

    In most microprocessors this shifting and adding process is done by
    hardware, but the sequence of these operations is done by program
    control. Some processors have hardware to automate the whole process,
    but it takes a lot of gates compared to adding.
     
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