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Discussion in 'Electronic Design' started by raseel, Dec 7, 2004.

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  1. raseel

    raseel Guest

    hai,
    now adays serial protocol is more used for communication
    purpose.why serial protocol is faster than parallel communication.
    Give me a detailed explanation
     
  2. Mark Jones

    Mark Jones Guest


    Hi Raseel. Serial transfers are not inherently any faster than
    parallel. If you are referring to IDE hard disks and the "Serial ATA"
    specification, then that is just another industry "gimmick" to sell a
    product. (P.S. Serial-ATA is supposedly very buggy.) SATA is an
    improvement in technology only in terms of speed. Serial and/or
    parallel data throughput depends on two things: clock speed vs. bus
    width. Obviously, a serial clock has to be higher than parallel clock
    to have the same throughput. If a serial "frame" or transmission can
    send 1 byte in 125nS and a parallel connection can send 8 bytes in
    1uS, then the operating speed is the same because each sends 8 bytes
    in 1uS. If you raise the serial clock, that becomes faster. If you
    raise the parallel clock or add more bits (pins, width), then it will
    be faster.

    Or was your question specifically about the protocol framing in
    serial transfers? If so, what type of serial data?

    -M
     
  3. Mac

    Mac Guest

    What do you mean by "faster?"

    In order to have a given data throughput, a serial bus has to have a
    faster clock speed than a parallel one with the same throughput,
    obviously, so in that sense it is faster.

    But if speed is measured in megabytes per second, then all the really fast
    buses are parallel. Memory buses are a good example.

    What we are seeing nowadays is that buses which have to go off board are
    often serial. This is to reduce wire count and to help maintain signal
    integrity, not to boost speed, per se.

    --Mac
     
  4. I think you are missing something important here which, if you
    understood it, would not permit your "gimmick" label to be so
    readily emitted. I will also venture that you have not personally
    had to push the limits of timing to get data moved quickly.

    Under that assumption that "all things happening at X Hz are
    equally hard", your transition from single-serial to parallel-serial
    makes some sense. But getting a data stream from a sender to a
    receiver with an embedded clock at X bits per Second is much
    easier, (in the realm where it is hard at all), than doing so with N
    data streams with an accompanying but not embedded clock at
    X words per Second. Rather than explain all the gory details of
    why that is so, I will leave it to your imagination. Of course, if
    you have no inkling about this, you should simply withdraw your
    snarky comments. Here is a clue from which to start building
    your new understanding: Propagation delay variation between
    devices, especially when they are on not on the same die, can
    easily consume most of the timing margin in a high speed design.

    Naturally, once the problem of getting a single stream of bits
    transported is solved, aggregate speed can be increased by
    doing the same trick in parallel. And that is exactly what is
    being done with PCI-X and similar movements. But you do
    not get to call such arrangements "parallel" in the sense that
    they negate the serial aspect of the data flow. The data do
    not arrive (in parallel) at the same time, nor do they have to in
    order to be accurately received and reassembled into words.
     
  5. John Fields

    John Fields Guest

     
  6. Serial, is _not_ faster than parallel.
    If you have a single communication 'wire', operating at a particular
    speed, adding a second wire (in a sense going 'parallel'), immediately
    doubles the potential data transfer rate. The costs of doing this, are
    adding an extra pin to every connector, an extra line driver/receiver for
    every wire etc..
    The alternative way to double the rate, is to increase the clock rate on
    the original wire. The costs of doing this, are the needs to probably
    improve the wire specification for the higher rate, faster
    drivers/receivers, possibly more complex line termination, and the need to
    improve the design around the line to deal with the increased risk of
    higher frequency interference.
    What has happened in recent years, is that the possible switching rates
    from standard semiconductors have got so high, at such low costs, for the
    circuitry needed to recover the clock from serial data, and convert
    to/from parallel as needed, while 'mechanical' connectors and wires, have
    remained relatively expensive, that the balance of economy has tended to
    move towards a higher clock rate 'serial' solution, being marginally
    cheaper in many cases than a 'parallel' solution. Combined with the
    advantage of thinner wires, serial solutions, have therefore become
    popular.

    Best Wishes
     
  7. Guest

    I think, raseel just simply compare something likes USB vs. LPT or SATA
    vs. IDE...
    and draw that conlusion.

    One thing would like to mention, all recent serials use differential
    tricks (LVDS, LVPECL...)
    to transfer data, that's why they can achieve so high rate, this trick
    can also be used in parallel
    such as ULTRA SCSI (320??), raseel, have you heard of this?
     
  8. Mark Jones

    Mark Jones Guest

    ¤¢¤Ê¤¿¤Ï¤Ð¤«¤Ç¤¦¡£

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  9. Rich Webb

    Rich Webb Guest

    Homework?
     
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