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Repairing Lightning Damaged Tv's

Discussion in 'Electronic Repair' started by CJ, Jun 13, 2004.

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  1. CJ

    CJ Guest

    I have no knowledge about repairing televisions, so I thought I'd ask
    here, All 3 of my tv's have been damaged by lightning , 2 of them wont
    even power up and the other one is in black and white now(is a color
    tv). Just wondering what I could do to repair my tv's? Thanks
  2. sofie

    sofie Guest

    Other than suggesting that you enroll in a consumer electronics repair
    course I would think that you would be best advised to take your televisions
    to a qualified technician with the proper training, necessary test equipment
    and replacement parts. This is not a job for the inexperienced
    novice...... not only is the circuitry complex but a television is one of
    the more dangerous electronic devices in your home.
  3. Oog. Sorry to hear about that... did all of them get damaged at once? If
    you live in an area frequented by lightning, the best thing to do is unplug
    the sets in advance. That's the best surge protection there is, and it's

    Lightning can damage/destroy all manner of things in a set, and even if you
    do manage to find and replace the troublesome components, there's no
    guarantee that something else inside that was only weakened might not go out
    later. It's just not worth it.

    If you're insured, you might consider having a qualified TV technician
    verify the damage and have your insurance company get you some new sets.
  4. Guest

    Like others have said, if you do not have the knowledge, tools and
    skill for repairing TVs, you would do well to take it to those who have.
    Having said that, a lightning strike on an electronic device could end
    up being a career choice for whomever decides to repair it. If you are
    puzzled by what I meant in the last sentence, you won't be should you
    attempt to repair them.
  5. It could just as easily be a blown fuse and a shorted diode in the bridge.
    We fix a lot more of them in a few minutes than get scrapped for excessive
    damage. Here in North Florida we see lots of lightning damage, more than in
    most parts of the country. Certainly many get damaged severly, but it is
    much more common to have minor damage in the PS.

  6. Asimov

    Asimov Guest

    "CJ" bravely wrote to "All" (12 Jun 04 21:32:33)
    --- on the heady topic of "Repairing Lightning Damaged Tv's"

    Typically, lightning damage tends to be limited to the antenna
    connection, tuner, and of course the AC line, ergo the power supply
    circuits. However, high voltage electricity can arc anywhere that
    forms the physically shortest path and thus damage can be done just
    about anywhere in a circuit.

    Your 2 tv's that won't power up may be the easiest to repair because
    the power supply may have stopped the lightning surge before it got
    any further into the circuit. The tv with colour missing may just be
    more the difficult one to fix.

    However, with lightning one can never really say for sure because even
    if a tv seems to function properly after being repaired it may fail
    again within a day, week, or month. Insurance companies know this and
    tend to write off equipment which is hit by lightning right off.

    What happens is that the lightning surge tends to stress semiconductor
    junctions by charging them beyond their rated voltage and causes them
    to breakdown. This breakdown current tends to cause localized
    ionization of the semiconductor material and results in either a
    permanent short circuit or a latent leakage path. The shorted
    junctions will of course cause an obvious malfunction. However, the
    leakage paths will typically worsen over time until they enventually
    short out too causing a new failure.

    For these reasons it makes more economical sense to dump a tv that was
    struck by lightning surge and buy a new one, basically to avoid the
    hassle. But insurance companies are usually good in paying for this,


    CJ> From: (CJ)

    CJ> I have no knowledge about repairing televisions, so I thought I'd ask
    CJ> here, All 3 of my tv's have been damaged by lightning , 2 of them wont
    CJ> even power up and the other one is in black and white now(is a color
    CJ> tv). Just wondering what I could do to repair my tv's? Thanks

    .... Batteries not included.
  7. Oog. Sorry to hear about that... did all of them get damaged at once? If
    It should be noted that power surge suppressors are designed to suppress
    unsustained power spikes only. They are completely useless at protecting
    equipment from direct and indirect lightning hits due to the sheer amount of
    energy that a lightning bolt has. Lightning will exceed the joule rating of
    even the best surge suppressor. The advice to unplug equipment from electrical
    outlets and telephone connections during a lightning storm, as advised by Mr.
    McCullar, is the best way to prevent lightning damage.

    As for the original poster, there isn't much that can be done to repair
    lightning damaged equipment if you don't have the training, experience,
    appropriate service documentation, and the repair equipment. As advised
    before, it is recommended that the damaged sets be taken to a repair
    professional. - Reinhart
  8. Ricky Eck

    Ricky Eck Guest

    Thank You! Very well put. I have been explaining this to people for a long
    time, but no one will believe me. I have for years, unplugged my computer
    with any sign of lightning, even if I don't see any, and I know a storm is
    moving in, I will unplug it. Phone cord and all! And another point on it
    to is, even if the storms are miles away, you can still get a surge that can
    damage the device. It don't take much. I have seen it many times when I
    repaired electronics a long time ago. People need to realize that these
    devices are very sensitive to electrical problems in the home, including
    storms. I usually tell people that a surge protector is just good enough to
    get the device shut down, in the even that a sudden storm comes up. They
    are also good for the everyday use, to insure that you are protected. Don't
    get me wrong. I am not saying that you should not use one on any electrical
    device, but you should not rely on it during a storm or any type of an
    unsure power situation.


    - Reinhart
  9. Mistress

    Mistress Guest

    My experience is similar to Leonard's. (I had a shop for 15 years).

    Be aware that these are generalizations.

    If the fuse was blown AND its glass was really blackened, most often I
    found one diode in the diode bridge shorted.

    If the fuse was blown and the glass was clear, it could be anything. Not
    good news.
  10. w_tom

    w_tom Guest

    The sheer amount of energy from a direct lightning strike is
    no where near the levels that myths portray. It is normal and
    usual to protect electronics from direct strikes without
    damage. Empire State Building would have 25 direct strikes to
    TV and FM radio equipment every year without damage. WTC was
    40 times per year. The concept were well proven since the
    1930s and yet still little understood by many in the 2000s.

    We still build new buildings as if the transistor did not
    exist. Earthing - and not some overhyped plug-in protectors -
    is protection. How earthing is installed and how incoming
    utilities connect to earthing defines effectiveness of
    protection. Since most homes directly connect appliances to
    lines highest on poles, then that is a direct lightning strike
    - if the incoming transient is not earthed before entering the
    building. Without upgraded earth ground and 'whole house'
    protector, then the homeowner is only inviting damage to occur
    when asleep, when not home, or when appliance is off. Even
    worse, the plug-in protector can provide a direct strike with
    more destructive paths through the appliance. Damage occurs
    because lightning finds earth ground, destructively, through
    the appliance.

    A long list of other appliances that cannot be protected by
    unplugging - GFCI in kitchen and bathroom, dimmer switches,
    clock radio, dishwasher, alarm system, smoke detectors,
    microwave oven, portable phone base station, etc. What
    protects all them?

    Some comments from those who first learned effective
    protection and are professionals in this industry:
    See Section 6.4:
    The 'whole house' protector can be purchased even in Home
    Depot for less than $50. That is about $1 per protected
    appliance for effective protection. Compare that to $10 or
    $50 for the ineffective plug-in protector that also does not
    claim to protect from the typically destructive surge. Notice
    the tens of times more money for protectors that don't even
    claim to protect. Notice the one component always required in
    every direct strike protection system: single point earth
    ground. Since ineffective and grossly overpriced plug-in
    protectors don't even claim to provide effective protection,
    then ineffective protectors also avoid discussing the most
    critical part of a protection system - the single point earth

    No earth ground means no effective protection.

    BTW if indirect strikes are so destructive, then any nearby
    strike would destroy the so sensitive RF transistor on every
    car and handheld radio. In reality, the nearby strike is
    really a direct strike. Just that the path of electricity was
    not fully understood. Why might lightning strike that tree?
    Because it is a path to better conductive earth using buried
    utilities entering the house, through household appliances,
    to earth ground on other side of building. Again, protection
    is about earthing which too many fail to learn - and then
    assume no protection is possible.

    Protection from the direct strike is so routine since before
    WWII that damage from lightning is now considered a human
    failure. Does your telco disconnect their $multi-million
    switching computer from overhead wires all over town during
    every thunderstorm? Of course not. Effective protection has
    been that well understood since before WWII. Even at the
    telco switching computer: surge protector is only as effective
    as its earth ground.

    Early 1900 ham radio operators would disconnect their
    antenna, put the antenna lead inside a mason jar, and still
    suffer damage. Damage stopped when that antenna lead was
    earthed. Protection only as effective as the earth ground.
    Even a human disconnecting appliance is less reliable.
  11. Thanks to a little thing called the lightning rod invented well before the 20th
    Century. Grounding, or earthing as you've put it, is a simple way of directing
    lightning to ground and safely away from anything that could be damaged as you
    already know. Without grounding, as you've said, the lightning would simply
    find its path to ground through the electronics.

    The antenna towers may also double as lightning rods that provide a path to
    ground to protect not only the transmission equipment, but the entire building
    as well.

    But my comment is merely pointing out the misconception by the general public
    that home power surge suppressors are effective against lightning strikes.
    They are not effective against that and anyone trusting a surge suppressor over
    effective grounding, as you've pointed out and I never mentioned, or
    disconnection of devices from the mains deserves to get their equipment damaged
    after a storm. - Reinhart
  12. Asimov

    Asimov Guest

    "Ricky Eck" bravely wrote to "All" (14 Jun 04 02:05:25)
    --- on the heady topic of "Re: Repairing Lightning Damaged Tv's"

    RE> From: "Ricky Eck" <>
    RE> [,,,]
    RE> People need to realize that these devices are very sensitive to
    RE> electrical problems in the home, including storms. I usually tell
    RE> people that a surge protector is just good enough to get the device
    RE> shut down, in the even that a sudden storm comes up. They are also
    RE> good for the everyday use, to insure that you are protected. Don't get
    RE> me wrong. I am not saying that you should not use one on any
    RE> electrical device, but you should not rely on it during a storm or any
    RE> type of an unsure power situation.

    Some years ago we had a rash of storms with a number of direct hits in
    the neighborhood. One home across the street had a hit on their pole
    pig and everything electric in the home was destroyed. In the days
    that followed the electric utility made repairs and installed fat
    hockey puck size arrestors between the distribution line and ground on
    every pole pig in the neighborhood. How effective is their protection
    with a direct lightning strike? Should they be replaced after a hit?


    .... Over a hundred billion electrons were used in crafting this tagline.
  13. Ricky Eck

    Ricky Eck Guest

    Actually those are not as uncommon as some people think. Line "Surge
    Protectors" from the electric company can be purchased. It is supposed to
    work better then ones in your home. This is according to the electric
    company. However, as I stated before, I would be skeptical on it. I have
    not researched it too much, and I don't know if they come with a guarantee
    of your equipment if something did fail. I would think that there is
    someone out there that works for the power company, that can give us some
    info on these protectors. I too would be curious if they are damaged after
    a surge of lightning. I would also like to find out if they protect against
    the imperfections in the electrical grids. Meaning when the power changes
    in voltages.

    I still stick to my methods of unplugging said devices when storms approach.
    Remember that what we have here are man made devices, and said man made
    devices, is why we have this message group. Mainly because they easily
    break. And said man made devices is what keeps many of those on this board,
    in business. So, if you want to support your fellow repairman, keep 'em
    plugged in..:) I am sure there will be a lot of happy repairman out there.
    Just remember, if you do need to take it to a repairman, take it to a small
    business man, not a major chain. The major shop's money just ends up in
    some rich man's hands. Money spent at your local business man's shop, will
    help feed his family.

    Oh, to answer your "?"...:) I don't know. Maybe there is an electrician
    with the power company that can answer this "?".
  14. w_tom

    w_tom Guest

    The protector is not protection. A protector is only a
    temporary connection from incoming wire to protection - earth
    ground. Ineffective plug-in protector must get the naive to
    misunderstand. To use word association to assume a protector
    and protection are same thing. Protector is only effective
    when it connects 'less than 10 foot' to protection - earth
    ground. No earth ground, then no effective protection.

    The 'whole house' protector is only called secondary
    Primary protection is provided by AC electric utility. A
    homeowner is advised to make a visual inspection of that
    utility provided protection. Examples of missing primary
    protection are demonstrated:
    And rules for earthing:

    Protection being only as effective as the earth ground.
    Protector only required when the incoming utility cannot be
    hardwired directly to earth. Protector only connects incoming
    wire to earth ground during a destructive transient.
  15. w_tom

    w_tom Guest

    How often does your 120 VAC exceed 330 volts? 330 volts is
    a number even printed on plug-in protector boxes. If AC line
    imperfections were occurring that high with any frequency,
    then you were replacing every dimmer switch, clock radio, AC
    powered smoke detector, and major household appliances
    frequently. Those 330 volt transients typically don't exist
    from the utility. Therefore the protector remains inert -
    does nothing - sees no such imperfections.

    AC line imperfections are less voltage. Expensive
    electronic equipment contains internal protection that makes
    'imperfections' even up to 600 volts irrelevant. Appliances
    already contain internal protection. Protection that assumes
    the major and destructive transients will be earthed before
    entering a building.

    The transient that does exist typically once every eight
    years is a common mode transient on AC electric that 1)
    occurs quickly (in microseconds), 2) requires a complete
    circuit to earth ground in order to do appliance damage (which
    is why phone appliances are so often damaged), and 3) that a
    plug-in protector does not even claim to protect from.

    Protectors are effective when they make the 'less than 10
    foot' connection to earth ground. Called 'whole house' type
    protectors. That is what a utility installed protector does
    IF your building has been wired to post 1990 code requirements
    for earthing. A utility typically does not even check that
    your earthing exists. Household earthing being the
    homeowner's responsibility; not utilities. No earth ground
    means no effective protection even from that utility provided
    protector that typically costs a very expensive $5 per month.

    Of course utilities can charge so much because so many
    homeowners spend much more money on ineffective plug-in
    protectors. That utility provided protector costs many times
    less per protected appliance and does more (assuming the post
    1990 earthing exists). But the best protection for the money
    is a homeowner installed 'whole house' protector installed in
    breaker box and with the necessary earthing connections. Home
    Depot even sells the Intermatic IG1240RC. Many others are

    Unplugging is unreliable. The human is typically available
    and awake less than 1/3rd of each day. But effective 'whole
    house' protection means no need to unplug; needs no unreliable
    human to provide protection. 'Whole house' protector is
    always there; doing what existing internal appliance
    protection requires to not be overwhelmed.

    Bottom line: a protector is only as effective as its earth
    ground. Something that plug-in protectors fear you might
    learn and avoid mentioning.
  16. Sunny

    Sunny Guest

    Unplugging is unreliable even when the human is available and paying
    attention. I recently lost an expensive stereo and TV due to a direct
    hit about 20 feet from my cottage. The equipment was unplugged prior to
    the strike, but I didn't think to disconnect the speaker cables and

    An extension cord lying disconnected on the ground outside writhed like
    a snake and now has neat holes burnt through the outer casing at exactly
    27" intervals.

    I doubt protection is possible under those circumstances - but I did
    catch 3 nice sized Northern Pike for dinner with my bare hands as they
    floated past the dock, stunned :)
  17. w_tom

    w_tom Guest

    Protection is always possible. Ham radio operators in the
    early 1900s would suffer damage. They disconnected the
    antenna. Still suffered damage. They placed antenna lead
    into a mason jar. Still suffered damage. They earthing the
    incoming antenna wire. Damage stopped happening.

    Damage occurs whenever the direct strike finds a path to
    earth ground inside building via the appliance. Incoming on
    antenna wire. Outgoing via speaker wires to earth ground via
    concrete floor or by being draped on adjacent baseboard heat.
    Your situation may vary.

    But this we have always understood. Protection works when
    all incoming wires are earthed to a single point ground. That
    means all utility wires must enter building at same location.
    That means the single point earth ground must be the best
    earthing for that building.

    Your phone already makes that earthing connection using a
    'whole house' protector inside the premise interface box.
    Phone cannot work if earthed directly. So a protector makes
    the temporary earthing connection; earthing wire only during a
    surge. Your cable needs no protector. But cable needs
    connection to protection. Cable connects directly to the
    single point earth ground before entering building to earth
    incoming transients.

    Earthing is why effective protection works. The single
    point earth ground. And yet 30 years after the transistor is
    ubiquitous, we still don't build new buildings as if the
    transistor exists.

    AC electric routinely enters without connection to earth
    ground. Again, this utility requires a 'whole house'
    protector such as from Home Depot (Intermatic IG1240RC). And
    - of course - your building's single point earth ground may
    not yet exist. Older buildings often had no single point
    ground. The building owner may need to upgrade or exceed
    earthing requirements of the current National Electrical Code.

    No earth ground means no effective protection. The naive
    assume nothing can protect from lightning even though it is
    done annually in virtually every town. Remember the lessons
    from early ham radio operators. Earthing is still necessary
    to avoid damage. Protection is only as effective as its earth
  18. Sunny

    Sunny Guest

    I personally installed the electric service at my cottage 20 years ago,
    in accordance with all Canadian electrical codes in effect at the time.
    IIRC, earthing involved banging two 8' rods into the ground several feet
    apart and connecting them to the neutral bus-bar inside the fuse panel,
    and also running a cable from the same bus-bar to the cold water
    plumbing. The phone company installed the phone service, which enters
    the building beside the electric meter, but I don't know if/how they
    effected earthing. The only other incoming wire is from the TV antenna,
    on the opposite side of the building, which currently has no earthing.

    I would be greatful if you could explain, in laymans terms, what further
    steps I could take to protect my cottage electrical equipment from
    lightning strikes - since unplugging doesn't work.

    I have no reason to doubt your assertion that protection is always
    possible, but I am having some difficulty translating your advice into


  19. w_tom

    w_tom Guest

    Protection starts with the underlying geology. Best is a
    monolithic soil of clay or loam that is damp. Worst is sand
    or gravel. Also bad would be two different types of soil
    where the more electrically conductive vein is far from the
    single point ground. Example: they had a bathroom wall struck
    twice by lightning. They installed lightning rods. The
    bathroom wall was struck a third time. Lightning rods were
    earthed in sand. Bathroom plumbing made a better connection
    to deeper limestone. One poster in the Perennes once said he
    had to sink a 150 foot ground rod to get through glacier
    tailings and into more conductive soil. A rather extreme
    example that demonstrates the point.

    Establish the single point earth ground. For most, two
    ground rods driven well below the frost line and separated by
    a distance equivalent to their length is sufficient (Rods
    closer tend to act as if they were the same rod). Idea is to
    make this the best electrical ground on the property.

    All incoming utilities first connect to this single point
    ground either by direct wire connection or via a surge
    protector. Unfortunately, your antenna violates the
    principle. But there are alternative solutions. Three
    examples - the bad, ugly, and good (left to right) - are
    provided in figure 2. Concept demonstrated in figure 1. Halo
    ground that connects your earth grounds together. This could
    be a buried bare 4 AWG ground wire that interconnects AC
    electric ground to TV antenna ground. That buried bare wire
    makes all grounds equipotential as well as enhances the
    connection of earth ground to earth:

    A US government publication further discusses the single
    point principle:

    Equipotential means earth beneath cottage appears to be the
    same voltage no matter how massive the direct strike. We can
    install a great earth ground. But that may not be
    sufficient. So we surround the house with a halo ground or
    Ufer ground to also make earth beneath building equipotential.
    Homes built to contain transistors have a halo or Ufer ground
    installed when footing are pours - plans for good earthing
    must be started that early. This principle avoids
    complications created by varying earths. A complication that
    most homes new not worry about. But a halo or Ufer ground
    should be installed in all new construction because it is so
    cheap and so effective.

    Now that we have established a good earth ground, we are now
    ready to make connection to that ground. Every wire entering
    the building must connect that that single point ground.
    Ground wire connection (ie from neutral bus bar) must be
    short, direct, and independent. IOW (short) it must be less
    than ten feet. It (direct) must have no sharp bends; no
    splices. (Even 90 turns and lead solder joints on copper water
    pipes violate good connection requirements). It (independent)
    must be separated from all other non-earthing wires and must
    not connect to any other earthing wire until they all meet at
    the single point ground.

    Idea is to make that earthing wire low impedance; not just
    low resistance. For example, 90 degree bends could add a
    mircohenries to wire inductance. For earthing, that would
    result in a substantial increase in wire impedance.

    Using numbers: that earthing wire might have less than .1
    ohms resistance. But it might also have as much as 4 ohms
    impedance. Any increase in earthing wire impedance means a
    surge may seek other and destructive paths to earth ground
    inside the building. An earthing wire from bus bar straight
    through foundation to a point just above soil would be
    superior to an earth ground that routes up over top of
    foundation (through 2x10 or rim board) and back down to earth.

    Two other AC electric wires have also entered the building
    and cannot be earthed - also called hot wires. These are the
    most common source of surge damage especially to phone
    appliances that use AC electric - answering machine, computer
    modem, portable phone base station. The 'whole house'
    protector must connect from each wire to that bus bar. One
    minimally sized example sold in Home Depot is Intermatic
    IG1240RC. Others have been listed in newsgroup misc.rural as
    "telephone wire/lightning strikes" on 30 Sept 2003:

    A 'whole house' protector for residential service should be
    at minimum 1000 joules and 50,000 amps. Some, such as GE's
    THQLSurge (if I have remembered the name correctly) that is
    also sold in Lowes, is undersized and overpriced. Square D
    makes one protector that is undersized AND does not even
    provide joules in its specs. But in that list is another
    Square D product that is well designed - more than meets
    minimum requirements.

    Telco installs a 'whole house' protector that meets US
    National Electrical Code requirements:
    From Article 800.30A:
    Article 800.30B Location.
    Article 800.31
    NID that contains telephone 'whole house' protector is: connectors.htm or

    A 14 AWG wire connects from that box to the single point
    ground. Again, it should meet these criteria rather than look
    neat: be short, direct, and independent. Too many telco
    installers want to square off the wire or neatly ty-wrap a
    ground wire to other cables. Wrong. That 14 AWG (more often
    is 12 AWG) wire must run independently and directly to the
    same single point ground used by AC electric. Both grounds
    meet at the earthing rod - the single point ground.

    Every incoming wire - all three AC electric, both telephone
    wires, and shield of any incoming coax cable from satellite
    dish - are earthed to same earth ground. As noted earlier,
    that antenna will require special attention. Now lets discuss
    induced transients.

    Lightning strikes the TV antenna seeking earth ground. Path
    will be destructive via household wires. And not necessary
    just through TV and AC electric to earth ground. That antenna
    wire may be bundled with other wires. Therefore that antenna
    wire induces transients on other wires or may even arc into
    those other wires.

    Same problem is also created by plug-in protectors. Lets
    say a plug-in protector is earthing the transient. IOW it is
    shunting a transient into the AC electric safety ground wire.
    But that safety ground wire is bundled with other wires. Now
    a transient is induced onto those other wires. Just another
    example of why plug-in protectors are not effective and can
    even contribute to surge damage.

    Idea is to earth a transient before it can enter the
    building. Not just earth anywhere, but earth less than 10
    feet to a single point. Campers demonstrate the principle.
    They were sleeping nearby a tree that was struck. Lightning
    strikes tree to obtain earth borne charges some kilometers
    beyond those boys. Some were sleeping perpendicular to that
    tree and were not hurt. Any boy who was sleeping pointed
    towards that tree had electricity rise up into his feet, pass
    through his body, then exit via his head. Body is more
    conductive than earth. Lightning will find every conductive
    path to those earth borne charges some kilometers away. This
    is also why multiple earth grounds on a building can cause
    lightning to find the other earth ground, destructively, via
    the house.

    When lightning is striking, stand with both feet together -
    the single point ground. Building uses same concept to not
    have appliances damaged.

    Incoming transients also applies to buried wires. This
    industry professional (another source of protectors)
    demonstrates two structures - each with their own single point
    earth ground AND both single point grounds interconnected.
    Buried phone line is also carrying a destructive transient.
    Phone line is earthed at building's earth ground before
    entering because even buried wires carry destructive

    'Whole house' protectors are only secondary protection.
    Primary protection is provided by the utility at transformer.
    But that primary protector may need be inspected. Some
    pictures of what to look for:
    And rules for earthing:

    Protectors are only a simple science of protection. The
    art is in the earthing. More about earthing was discussed
    previously in two threads in the newsgroup misc.rural:
    Storm and Lightning damage in the country 28 Jul 2002
    Lightning Nightmares!! 10 Aug 2002 and

    Should you wish to learn more, Polyphaser (another
    manufacturer of 'real world' protectors) provides application
    notes such as this one about single point ground:
    and others:

    Additional information in some MTL Surge Technology app notes

    Bottom line is this: a surge protector is not protection. A
    surge protector is only as effective as its earth ground.
    Notice no technical references to companies that sell
    ineffective protection such as APC, Panamax, and Tripplite -
    and other plug-in manufacturers so often hyped by myth. What
    do they avidly avoid discussing to sell their ineffective
    products? Earth ground. No earth ground means no effective
  20. Sunny

    Sunny Guest

    Your incredibly comprehensive and useful reply is very much appreciated!


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