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Is it safe for kids to take apart electronics?

Discussion in 'Electronic Repair' started by momwithtools, Feb 11, 2005.

  1. Terry

    Terry Guest

    Maybe? But the more prosperous Romans used lead drink containers and look
    where it got them. Quite a few of the most rich (Emperors etc.) went mad!
    Lead fumes are supposed to be bad too; see also unleaded gasoline!
    On a similar ecological note; we still have the well for household water
    supply that we dug 35 years ago; before a municipal water supply became
    available, and when there were fewer neighbours.
    That water still tests 'good', bacteriologically; but in the intervening
    years neighbours have used herbicides and pesticides, often just to try and
    get a 'greener' lawn! Or just to get rid of dandelions, which when young are
    edible btw.
    I wouldn't drink the stuff now! Oddly our grass+clover hardly ever tended to
    (well I did stick some limestone on it a few years ago, mainly because
    someone gave it to me!), only gets cut occasionally, and looks fine!
    Most landfills are/must be toxic pits of potential pollution, complete with
    the lead from old car batteries, tyres, rotting furniture, old vinyl etc.
    etc. ... you name it!
    And the Great Lakes, biggest, now polluted, freshwater resources in the
    world? And next the oceans? Polluted? From run offs?
    Shame on us!
    PS You know how radioactivity is measured in half lives? e.g. Plutonium with
    a half life of say 10,000 years!
    I wonder what is the 'half life' of one car battery weighing say 25 pounds!
    Several hundred? One thousand years? Maybe in the future we'll be digging up
    those 'landfills' to recover "recyclable products"?
     
  2. NSM

    NSM Guest

    And Mad Hatters WERE mad - mercury!

    N
     
  3. Barry Lennox

    Barry Lennox Guest

    Many UK cities used lead water pipes for the past 150 years, much of
    this has now been replaced, but during WW2 many of the records were
    lost and a lot of piping in some cities is still lead. The UK EPA is
    well aware of this and monitor the blood/lead level in the cities
    known to be the worst. No significant amounts have ever been found, at
    least due to this means of ingress. In the very worst cities, they add
    a small amount of lime to the water to keep it slightly alkaline, thus
    ensuring that no lead leaching can occur.

    Yes, there is no doubt that Tetra Ethyl Lead is very toxic, metallic
    lead is nothing like that. The key issue of any poison is
    "bio-availability" and metallic lead is not that easy to get into your
    system.

    There has been some very well documented studies on landfills in the
    Silicon Valley area (that for 30-40 yrs had more than the usual
    proportion of solder and lead dumped into them) and lead leachate is
    not a problem. Much to the disgust of the EPA who went in there like
    screaming lunatics.

    And the same applies around the old lead mines in Leadville and other
    communities in CO.

    There simply is no evidence that lead leaching is a problem.

    However, many of the substitute solders for "lead-free" are more toxic
    than 63:37 lead-tin.

    The EU is the problem rather than lead. The world will one day wake up
    to this giant hoax by the masters of bureacracy!

    Maybe we will, when lead gets scarce, but bear in mind that most large
    landfills for maybe 20 years now have been recycling car batteries,
    this is an easy and relatively low-cost process. OK, there's always a
    few slip through, but see above, the lead has proven to be very stable
    in the ground, with no significant leachate problems.
     
  4. Guest

    Got any cites for those studies? I'd like to see them.

    --E
     
  5. Denny

    Denny Guest

    Is "battery recycling" by industry real? There is a report that
    alleges, "NO".

    Here's the LINK and full text, below:

    http://www.things.org/~jym/greenpeace/myth-of-battery-recycling.html

    The Myth of Automobile Battery Recycling

    by Madeleine Cobbing and Simon Divecha

    A global Greenpeace investigation of automobile lead-acid battery
    collection programs has revealed a massive flow of these extremely
    toxic wastes from heavily industrialized countries -- particularly
    Australia, Japan, the U.K. and the U.S. -- to many Third World
    countries, particularly in Asia.

    The main factors causing the lead battery waste trade are typical to
    all waste trade schemes: in industrial countries, the environmental
    and occupational health regulatory cost of operating lead battery
    recycling facilities is ever-increasing, and the prices offered for
    secondary lead are low. It is simply not profitable to operate
    secondary lead smelters in many industrial countries. Battery brokers
    are finding more profitable markets in places where workers are paid
    little, and environmental and workplace regulations are weak and/or
    unenforced.

    The end result of this free trade in toxic waste: thousands of workers
    and children suffering from lead blood poisoning, rivers and air
    loaded with lead emissions, and big profits for the lead battery
    brokers and manufacturers.

    The Inherent Dangers of Lead Recycling
    Lead is a basic element and can not be destroyed. For thousands of
    years, people have extracted lead from ores for use in a variety of
    products. Now, more than half of the lead extracted by humans is used
    is in batteries. Other major uses include semi-finished sheetmetal and
    pipes, alloys, cable sheathing, additives in gasoline and other
    compounds, and ammunition.

    Lead and people do not belong together, and human society should avoid
    its use at all costs. For example, historians have tied the decline of
    the Roman Empire partially to declining intelligence caused by the use
    of lead in drinking vases and other utensils.

    Children are especially vulnerable to the effects of lead. Even
    relatively small amounts of lead can cause permanent lowering of
    intelligence in children, potentially resulting in reading disorders,
    psychological disturbances, and mental retardation. Other effects of
    lead on children include kidney disease, and gouty arthritis.

    The Decline of Lead Battery Recycling in Industrial Countries
    Lead batteries and lead battery smelters have been transferring out of
    industrial countries in recent years, as environmental regulations
    have tightened and domestic lead prices have dropped. In the U.K., for
    example, the secondary lead industry faces a "critical situation,"
    according to a recent issue of the Metal Bulletin. The U.K.'s Lead
    Development Association warned that "the current low lead price,
    combined with increasing associated environmental costs ... has made
    it less profitable" to operate secondary lead smelters. Industry
    officials in the U.K. are predicting that most lead smelters there
    will close within the next four years.

    The secondary lead industry has already shifted out of North America
    en masse. According to the Journal of Metals, by 1987, "the inability
    to economically install emission controls and purchase liability
    insurance forced closure of over half of the secondary lead smelters
    in North America." The U.S. Bureau of Mines reported that "waste
    disposal is becoming a very significant expense and is often a
    difficult task to perform," and linked the problems to the closures.

    The Bureau of Mines report added: "Foreign smelters can afford to bid
    a higher price for scrap because their capital, labor and
    environmental costs are lower than U.S. producers."

    The surviving lead battery smelters in North America are facing fates
    similar to those of the U.K. smelters. According to one metals
    journal, secondary lead "prices continued to drop in 1992 and in 1993
    because of low demand and ever-bulging inventories."

    According to the American Metal Market, "Scrap trade sources have said
    the growing importance of poorer countries as buyers in the
    international battery scrap market is a reflection of the difficulty
    some U.S. operators have had in assuring that they can comply with
    increasingly strict environmental regulations."

    Lead Industry's Recycling Greenwash
    Without a global dumping ground, the lead-acid battery manufacturing
    industry would likely be forced to become clean, by eliminating the
    use of lead in batteries. The demise of lead smelting companies in
    industrial countries, after all, reflects industrial societies' desire
    to be contaminated by lead no more. Unfortunately, the flourishing
    international trade in lead-acid battery wastes is providing battery
    manufacturers with cheap and easy escape valves for their toxic
    wastes.

    Just as the primary plastics industry promoted plastics "recycling"
    when citizens in industrial countries began fighting for plastics
    packaging bans, the lead-acid battery industry is using the cloak of
    "recycling" to hide the impact of its products' wastes, and to thus
    reduce the threat to its 'status quo' use of toxics in production
    processes.

    On May 7, 1991, Battery Council International (BCI), a trade
    association representing the international lead battery industry,
    distributed a press releases proclaiming: "Consumers Need to Be Jump
    Started on the Importance of Recycling Lead Batteries." This press
    release opens with classic words of 'greenwash':

    "Recyclable lead batteries work hard behind the scenes keeping heart
    surgeons operating when a storm knocks out electricity, starting cars
    on sub-zero winter mornings, and providing power for important U.S.
    military missions, including igniting the launch of Patriot Missiles
    in the recent Persian Gulf War. ... To protect our environment and to
    make the best use of this essential source of power, consumers need to
    recycle all lead batteries."

    The battery industry's campaign to make legislators and consumers
    believe in the magic of lead battery recycling has been remarkably
    successful, despite the continual decline of the lead recycling
    industry in industrial countries. Model laws crafted by BCI and
    adopted in many parts of the U.S., for example, require retailers to
    accept used car batteries when consumers purchase new ones. Several
    U.S. states require a cash deposit on new battery purchases, which is
    refunded to the consumer after they return the used battery to the
    retailer.

    When consumers pay cash recycling deposits, and return their used
    automobile lead-acid batteries to their retailers, they often suppose
    that the promised "recycling" means that the world's environment will
    benefit. Greenpeace and other investigations of the international
    lead-acid battery waste trade, however, reveal that this battery
    "recycling" can exact a terrible toll from workers, children and the
    environment in the Third World.


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Major Lead Waste Exporting Countries:

    Australia -- In 1992, Australia exported over 17 million kilograms
    (17,000 tonnes) of lead battery scrap to Hong Kong, India, Indonesia,
    Japan, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Taiwan and
    Thailand.


    Japan -- According to a government source, Japan exports 30,000 tonnes
    of lead-acid auto batteries to Southeast Asia each year.


    U.K. -- In 1992, the U.K. exported 578 tonnes of lead waste, including
    lead battery waste, to Indonesia, Pakistan, the Philippines, British
    Indian Ocean Territories, Bulgaria and South Korea. This rose to 3,124
    tonnes in the first 9 months 1993; the major destinations were the
    Philippines, Indonesia, India and Brazil.


    U.S. -- In the first nine months of 1993, the U.S. exported 41,527
    tons of lead scrap. More than 78% of these wastes went to Canada,
    which has relatively weak lead waste pollution control and liability
    regulations. Most of the remaining lead scrap exports were shipped to
    Brazil, South Korea, China and India. In 1990 and 1991, the U.S.
    exported 76,876 and 94,471 tons of lead scrap, respectively. Other
    major importing countries of U.S. lead scrap in the 1990s have
    included: Indonesia, Mexico, the Philippines, South Africa, Taiwan,
    Thailand and the U.K. By comparison, the U.S. imported just 10,000
    tonnes of lead scrap in 1990.

    Note: The figures for "lead scrap waste" exports do not differentiate
    between lead-acid battery waste and many other kinds of lead waste,
    such as slags and ashes from lead smelters and lead cable scrap.
    Customs and waste export regulations in most industrial countries do
    not regulate these waste streams separately. Many industrialized
    countries do not regulate the export of these wastes at all. (Sources:
    Australia - Australian Bureau of Statistics, Commodity Export
    Statistics, 1992, compiled by Greenpeace Australia; U.K. - U.K.
    Customs & Excise, Trade Statistics, 1992-93, compiled by Greenpeace
    U.K.; Port Import Export Research Service, Trade Statistics 1990 -
    1993, compiled by Greenpeace U.S. Also, numerous issues of American
    Metal Market; Battery and EV Technology, July 1991.)


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    The Third World Reality of Lead-Acid Battery Recycling
    In 1993, Greenpeace researchers followed the toxic battery waste trade
    to numerous lead-acid battery recycling facilities in Indonesia, the
    Philippines and Thailand. This research followed similar
    investigations conducted by the Center for Investigative Reporting in
    Taiwan in 1990, and other researchers in Brazil and Mexico in recent
    years.

    Pieced together, these investigations reveal that industrial countries
    are not shipping their batteries to environmentally sound recycling
    operations. In fact, U.S., U.K. and Australian automobile batteries
    are being burned in extremely dangerous and dirty Third World
    factories. These secondary lead smelters are discharging acid into
    waterways, dumping residual wastes outside property gates, and
    poisoning workers, villagers and their families.

    The investigations reveal the "double standards" inherent in all types
    of toxic waste trade. These double standards are reflected in all of
    the lead waste recycling processes that can potentially harm people
    and the environment, including transportation, workplace and ambient
    air emissions, storage and handling of scrap batteries, and slag
    disposal.

    For example, people working in lead recycling facilities in the U.S.
    are required to wear full-body protective gear to shield themselves
    from hazardous fumes and burning liquids. In one facility in the
    Philippines, Greenpeace witnessed factory workers pulling batteries
    apart with their bare hands. In Indonesia, villagers reported that
    lead ash from the factory falls in their food at night.

    Here are some brief summaries of the researchers' findings, country by
    country:

    Brazil
    Beginning in 1987, scores of workers at two lead battery importing and
    recycling plants in Brazil quit or were fired from their jobs after
    their health had failed. The people had worked at Tonolli and FAE
    S.A., two lead battery smelters located in Sao Jose dos Campos,
    Brazil. City public health officials announced in 1991 that the lead
    recycling companies were responsible for poisoning the workers with
    lead.

    According to Dr. Ezio Zaghetto, a Sao Jose dos Campos public health
    official, "Our tests [of the worker's blood and urine] showed that
    working at Tonolli and FAE causes chronic lead intoxication." [1]

    According to CETESB (the State of Sao Paolo Environmental Protection
    Agency), neighbors of Tonolli believe that the plant frequently
    releases black dusts, which settle on nearby farmland, and may have
    killed cattle in October 1988. CETESB believes that the emissions of
    lead and cadmium may also be causing highly elevated levels of lead in
    the blood of children living nearby. [2] CETESB fined FAE in 1988 for
    numerous violations of occupational health and environmental
    regulations, including problems with the smelter itself. [3] Despite
    these findings, Tonolli and FAE are still operating and are two of
    Brazil's largest lead battery waste importers.

    Worker health & safety has also been a problem at Microlite, the
    largest of the battery smelters in Brazil and part of Saturnia
    Batteries Enterprise. High levels of lead were found in the blood of
    workers and in the air . Microlite imports battery waste from the U.K.
    and the U.S.

    Indonesia
    Indonesia is one of the few countries in Asia which has banned some
    waste imports. Although Indonesian customs authorities temporarily
    impounded over 100 container loads of lead-acid battery waste in
    various ports, new containers are still being imported into the
    country.

    Environment and health officials have also been fighting to control
    battery processors since mid-1991. Indonesia's federal Environment
    Ministry (BAPEDAL) closed one lead-acid battery recycling facility in
    Surabaya in May 1991, and another in Bekasi in September 1992. In
    December 1992, the regional government in Cirebon ordered the closure
    of ten lead acid battery recycling factories because of pollution and
    occupational health violations. [4]

    Indonesia's efforts to prosecute individual lead-acid battery
    importers have failed to stem the foreign waste invasion. In the first
    five months of 1993, the U.K. shipped over 700 tonnes of lead acid
    batteries to Indonesia, compared to 200 tonnes shipped from the U.K.
    in 1992. Australia is the main source of the invasion; in 1992, it
    exported more than 11,000 tonnes of battery scrap to Indonesia.

    Greenpeace visited IMLI, the largest battery waste importing plant in
    Indonesia, located south of Surabaya. When it began operation in the
    late 1980's, villagers believed it was a wood processing plant.
    Instead, IMLI burns 60,000 tonnes of lead acid batteries at the plant
    each year. Clouds of smoke and ash from the factory have been
    descending on the community since IMLI began operation, rendering
    nearby rice fields infertile. Local residents complain that ashes from
    the factory often fall in their wells and on their food. Many
    villagers say they are sick, that everyone has a cough, and half of
    them cough blood.

    BAPEDAL sampled effluent from IMLI and determined it to be extremely
    acidic. Documents obtained by Greenpeace revealed lead levels in IMLI
    workers and local villagers between two and three times greater than
    the acceptable U.S. occupational health standards.

    IMLI also dumps its waste slag -- a mixture of lead and plastic from
    the furnaces -- outside its factory gates. Villagers collect the slag,
    take it home, and smelt it in woks over open fires in their backyards.
    The lead spills onto the ground as it is poured off, while molten
    plastic floats to the top. The villagers then try to sell the
    extracted lead content of the slag, while exposing themselves even
    more to the foreign waste invasion. People throughout Java are
    practicing this crude method of recycling wastes from another country.

    Mexico
    In December 1993, Morris Kirk, the operator of a Mexican lead battery
    recycling company called Alco Pacific, was sentenced to 16 months in a
    California state prison, and fined US$2.5 million for illegally
    transporting lead battery wastes from the U.S. to Mexico. [5] He had
    shipped the wastes across the border under the pretext of recycling.
    Mexican law allows hazardous waste imports for recycling but not for
    disposal.

    Kirk's Alco Pacific smelter in Ojo de Agua, Mexico, imported hundreds
    of truckloads of automobile batteries between 1988 and 1991. It faced
    growing resistance from people living nearby. Alco Pacific's smelter
    closed in early 1991 and Kirk declared bankruptcy, leaving behind a
    massive pile of car battery wastes from the U.S.

    The 15,500 tonne pile of waste batteries will be cleaned up by a
    corporate co-defendant in the case, RSR Industries of Dallas, Texas,
    which is one of the world's largest automobile battery recycling
    companies. RSR Industries allegedly supplied most of the batteries to
    Alco Pacific through its California-based subsidiary, Quemetco. [6]

    Car batteries were not the only toxic lead wastes from the U.S.
    planned to be "recycled" at the ill-fated Alco Pacific smelter:
    According to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency records, the
    transnational corporation, DuPont, unsuccessfully tried to ship
    millions of pounds of lead slag from its New Jersey plant to Alco
    Pacific in 1990. [7]

    A Greenpeace investigation of the plant in 1992 found that
    uncontrolled fires were burning in the lead battery waste pile. This
    investigation was documented in "Wasting the World," a Greenpeace
    Toxic Trade campaign video released during the December 1992 meeting
    of the Basel Convention. [8]

    David Eng, a district attorney for Los Angeles County, confirmed that
    numerous fires have been burning in Alco Pacific's toxic battery pile
    since the smelter closed in 1991. Eng also reported that cows at a
    nearby dairy farm have died after drinking lead-contaminated water
    flowing from the smoldering battery dump, and residents of the
    surrounding towns are suffering from skin and respiratory diseases.
    [9]

    Since Alco Pacific's closure, U.S. lead battery waste shipments to
    Mexico have virtually stopped, according to American Metal Market
    newspaper.

    Philippines
    In the first 6 months of 1993, waste traders from Australia, Japan,
    New Zealand, the U.K. and the U.S. shipped over 16,000 tonnes of
    battery scrap to the Philippines.

    These foreign wastes are violating a national law banning such toxic
    waste imports. The Philippine Department of Environment and Natural
    Resources ruled in 1991 that "the importation of waste batteries which
    are considered as hazardous materials is not allowed" under Republic
    Act No. 6959. [10]

    The vast majority of the waste shipped to the Philippines in 1993 went
    to a lead smelter near Manila, Lead Smelters Inc., which recently
    changed its name to Philippines Recyclers Inc. (PRI). Despite emission
    controls devices on the plant, it is polluting the nearby river and
    surrounding rice fields. Local residents report that discharge from
    the plant into the river often runs black, and local residents suffer
    from burning eyes and sore throats.

    Pollution from lead battery imports into the Philippines is not
    confined to the PRI vicinity. Battery wastes also find their way to
    small battery recyclers, like Parker Batteries, in the back streets of
    Manila. At Parker Batteries, workers wear no protective clothing, and
    gasp in unventilated rooms. Residents and workers around Inmarflex, a
    secondary lead smelter in Manila, suffer from severe breathing
    problems; some of them even cough up blood.

    Greenpeace researchers visited Parker Batteries and found it almost
    impossible to breathe because of sulfuric acid fumes. Lead waste and
    sulfuric acid drains into open sewers in the surrounding slums, and
    slags from the lead smelter lie on the open ground next to the plant.

    Workers at Parker Batteries exhibit signs of lead contamination with
    teeth blackened by years of inhaling lead. Official occupational
    health and safety studies have found that workers at both Parker
    Batteries and PRI have "significantly higher levels of lead" in their
    blood compared to workers from other industries using lead. [11]

    Taiwan
    The San Francisco-based Center for Investigative Reporting (CIR) first
    looked at the lead battery trade while producing the hour-long waste
    trade documentary, "Global Dumping Ground," and a companion book, both
    of which were released in 1990. Their investigative trail led to
    Taiwan, where CIR researchers found two factories importing lead-acid
    batteries from the U.S.: ACME and Thai Ping. [12]

    These factories were already under investigation by the Taiwanese
    government for causing severe health and environmental problems, and
    eventually, the government of Taiwan ordered a ban on all lead-acid
    battery imports. Taiwan's Environmental Protection Agency has since
    replaced this ban with a new licensing procedure for lead waste
    importers. This procedure has dramatically limited, but not entirely
    stopped, lead scrap imports. [13] Export records from Australia
    indicate that Australian companies were still shipping lead-acid
    batteries to Taiwan, through May 1993. [14]

    The investigations were triggered in 1987 when a sick ACME employee
    went to Dr. Jung-Der Wang complaining of faintness and weakness in his
    arms and legs. Dr. Wang, a Harvard-educated specialist in
    environment-related health problems, determined that the worker
    suffered from an extremely high level of lead in his blood -- twice
    the limit for U.S. standards. Dr. Wang surmised that the worker had
    been poisoned on the job.

    With the help of the Taiwan government, Dr. Wang launched an
    investigation into the extent of contamination and poisoning amongst
    ACME workers. He found that 31 of the 64 ACME workers suffered from
    lead poisoning, and some of them had blood lead levels three times
    higher than U.S. occupational health limits.

    The pollution from ACME's lead smelter did not stop at the factory
    gates. Dr. Wang examined 36 children at a nearby school and found that
    22 of them had elevated levels of lead in their blood. In addition, a
    Taiwanese newspaper reported that ACME had dumped thousands of tonnes
    of waste in a open field near the factory, and that the waste was
    threatening the water supply of the surrounding community.

    As the ACME investigation progressed, citizens living near an even
    larger lead smelter, Thai Ping, became concerned about local lead
    emissions. Protesters gathered at the Thai Ping factory and smashed
    windows.

    Like the ACME factory, Thai Ping was poisoning its workers. In April
    1990, Dr. Michael Rabinowitz conducted an investigation into the
    health of Thai Ping workers. He found that they had blood lead levels
    high enough to be at risk of developing kidney and nerve problems. He
    also examined school children near the Thai Ping smelter and found
    that the children's teeth had twice the lead level of children living
    in the capital city of Taipei.

    Dr. Rabinowitz warned that the "children can be expected to have
    impaired intelligence, slower physical growth and some behavioral
    disorders -- trouble paying attention, hyperactivity."

    In 1990, the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (EPA)
    decided to halt all battery imports due to the extensive
    contamination. [15] "Don't import from the United States," said Taiwan
    EPA Director Eugene Chien. "It causes too many problems for us." [16]

    Thailand
    In May 1986, the U.S. subsidiary of a Danish company, Bergsoe Metal
    Corp., went bankrupt, and closed its lead battery recycling plant in
    St. Helens, Oregon. According to the Oregon Department of
    Environmental Quality, Bergsoe's facility poisoned air, groundwater,
    and soil beyond the plant's property with lead and arsenic.[17]
    Bergsoe's U.S. subsidiary then tried to operate as a toxic waste
    battery broker, and unsuccessfully requested the governments of
    Pakistan, South Korea and Taiwan to import lead battery wastes. [18]

    Today, Bergsoe Metal Corp., operates a lead battery recycling plant in
    Suraburi, Thailand, which imports lead waste from industrialized
    countries such as Australia, Japan and the U.S. Australia shipped 166
    tonnes of battery scrap to Thailand in 1992, and over 6,000 tonnes in
    the first nine months of 1993. [19]

    In Suraburi, north of Bangkok, an ornate Buddhist archway leads to a
    temple. It also marks the entrance to Bergsoe's lead smelter for
    processing imported lead-acid batteries. This lead recycling plant
    breaks up the batteries and smelts them, along with their plastic
    casings.

    Bergsoe's plant is emitting a toxic haze of chlorine, lead and other
    hazardous substances, sure to leave a legacy as disastrous as its
    former smelter in Oregon. Bergsoe dumps toxic slags behind their
    Suraburi factory, where the toxics leach into the ground. Greenpeace
    researchers took samples of Bergsoe's discharges and found high levels
    of lead.

    Local residents complain that the plant emits white smoke, mostly at
    night, which makes their eyes burn, makes them nauseous, and gives
    them a strange taste in their mouths. According to Suchart
    Somkhunthod, a neighbor of the factory and an infrequent employee of
    Bergsoe when "huge containers come from overseas," the smoke emitted
    "smells bad and makes me feel nauseous."

    Incredibly, Bergsoe enjoys a positive reputation with the Thai
    government, receiving an "outstanding factory" award from the Ministry
    of Industry in 1988. It is now trying to expand its Suraburi plant.
    [20]


    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Sources:
    [1] Michael Kepp, "Workers walk at Brazil units," American Metal
    Market, March 4, 1991.

    [2] CETESB, report on environmental and public contamination by lead,
    at the farm "Sol da Mata," near Tonolli, March 6, 1989.

    [3] "Fae leva multa depois de ser elogiada por alemaes," Vale do
    Paraiba, March 1988.

    [4] Jakarta Post articles and Indonesian government records.

    [5] Los Angeles Times, December 16, 1993.

    [6] Andrea Ford, "Firm Agrees to Clean Up Tijuana Site," Los Angeles
    Times, June 16, 1993.

    [7] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency records.

    [8] Greenpeace International.

    [9] Los Angeles Times, December 16, 1993.

    [10] Letter from Delfin J. Ganapin, Office of the Undersecretary for
    Environment and Research, Philippine Department of Environment and
    Natural Resources, to Raul Ch. Rabe, Director General, Office of
    American Affairs, Department of Foreign Affairs, Manila, 3 April 1991.

    [11] Felicidad T Castro, M.D., Chief, Health Control Division,
    Occupational Safety and Health Centre, Philippines, "The Biological
    Levels of Lead in Selected Workers," paper submitted to the second
    National Occupational Safety and Health Congress, September 1991,
    Quezon City, Philippines.

    [12] Center for Investigative Reporting with Bill Moyers, Global
    Dumping Ground: the International Traffic in Hazardous Waste (Seven
    Locks Press, U.S., 1990).

    [13] American Metal Market, October 19, 1992.

    [14] Australian Bureau of Statistics, Commodity Export Statistics,
    1990-93.

    [15] Letter from Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency to Greenpeace,
    1990.

    [16] Center for Investigative Reporting.

    [17] Brent Walth, "Blind Faith," Wilamette Week, September 24-30,
    1987.

    [18] U.S. EPA records.

    [19] Australian Bureau of Statistics, Commodity Export Statistics,
    1990-93.

    [20] Klomjit Chandrapanya, "Indecent Disposal," FOCUS, The Nation
    (Thailand), September 2, 1993.
     
  6. NSM

    NSM Guest

    ....
    ....

    Not just lead. Most ship breaking is done in India and similar places now -
    ships full of tons of PCBs and asbestos amongst other hazards.

    N
     
  7. N Cook

    N Cook Guest

    When it comes down to it what is recyclable in a domestic VCR say.
    I know Southampton University developed an electrostatic
    system for separating different plastics but I think that was for
    large car type pieces.
    There's been no gold, to speak of, on edge connectors since the 1970s.
    Just leaves some aluminium and steel. I know there is a
    scheme for recycling some mobile phones as calculators etc
    but generally ICs are just a mixture of processed sand and plastic
    with a small amount of mixed metals and no possible re-use.

    electronic hints and repair briefs , schematics/manuals list on
    http://homepages.tcp.co.uk/~diverse
     
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