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Is 50 MHz doable for a complete newbie?

Discussion in 'Electronic Basics' started by Tobias Weingartner, Feb 19, 2005.

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  1. Hello all,

    I'm a newbie when it comes to actually designing circuits at much
    of anything above about 1MHz or so. And at that speed, you basically
    just slap them together, and they basically work.

    Now I'm looking at a circuit that will want to run at some 50MHz,
    a CPU, FPGA, some SDRAM... I will be doing a PCB, but are there
    other things I should be aware of? And good books/software, or even
    practices to make this as painless as the 1MHz stuff was? :)

    Any help, any pointers? :)


    PS: I've read the "black magic" book, and I understand the ideas that
    are presented within, but the actual application of most of those ideas
    are completely beyond me at the current time.
     
  2. Hi, one.
    Hmmm. That's not the way I remember the results
    of such practises. You must lead a charmed life.
    This is not the right forum for a complete list of
    gotcha's to avoid and tips to follow.

    The most important thing to keep in mind as you go up in
    frequency is that your idealizations of the circuit become
    less and less accurate. Stray inductance and capacitance
    create relatively larger effects, trace length become more
    important due to reflections and radiation, and interference
    effects (outbound and inbound) are more pronounced.
    I've never seen that book. The issues are well within
    the realm of applied physics and mathematics. There
    is no need for magic of any color or lack thereof.
     
  3. Bob

    Bob Guest

    Tobias,

    Clock rate will affect your setup and hold times.

    Edge rate will affect the effect of reflections.

    You got lucky, with modern IC's, if you just "threw everything together" at
    1MHz and it worked.

    Howard Johnson's (...Handbook of Black Magic) has its good points (and its
    bad points), but as you've surmised, it doesn't teach you how to do
    high-speed design. To me, it's more of a reference book.

    Learn about:

    * transmission line effects on signals
    * data valid window on outputs
    * data valid window on inputs (i.e., setup and hold time requirements of
    each (and all) inputs)
    * clock monotonicity requirements on inputs
    * all of the various termination techniques
    * logic family input and output characteristics (input/output levels, output
    impedance, input impedance, edge rates, overshoot/undershoot
    restrictions...)
    * clocking distribution techniques (e.g., common low-skew distributed clocks
    vs. clock forwarding)
    * power supply bypassing techniques and requirements (especially bypass
    capacitor parasitic effects)

    After your grasp (really understand) these concepts, then you'll be ready to
    start. Otherwise, you're just guessing.

    Electromagnetics Explained, by Schmitt, is a very good book for some of
    these concepts. The chapter on transmission lines is very good (although it
    has a few typos).

    Best of luck,
    Bob


    [100~Plax]sb16i0A2172656B63616820636420726568746F6E61207473754A[dZ1!=b]salax
     
  4. John Larkin

    John Larkin Guest


    50 MHz with conventional CMOS logic parts isn't bad. But spend a few
    bucks more for a 4-layer (or more, if you need it) board with a solid
    ground plane and a single or split power layer. After that, just keep
    all the traces short (don't trust an autorouter! They tend to give
    your most critical signals the Grand Tour of the board.)

    Sprinkle surface-mount bypass caps around, with vias to the ground
    plane and the power plane/islands. Maybe four or so per chip per
    supply voltage, and a few more here and there. Contrary to folklore,
    you don't need one per power pin, nor do they have to be super-close
    to the power pins. The best bypass cap is the capacitance between the
    power and ground planes, so make that dielectric layer as thin as the
    board house allows.

    Plan your FPGA pinouts to minimize trace lengths and crossovers, and
    contribute to the general beauty of the board.

    Use series resistors (small surfmount arrays) in the lines to the
    SDRAMS; try 33 ohms maybe, close to the CPU or FPGA driving the
    memory.

    Put test points (just pads with thru-holes big enough for a scope
    probe tip to park in) on everything interesting: powers, clocks, chip
    selects, ras/cas type things, one CPU port pin for timing subroutines.
    No matter how many you put, you'll regret not having more. At speed, a
    scope probe needs a good ground, so add a bunch of small (4-40 or
    2-56) sized holes, grounded, and put in screws, pointing up, as places
    to clip probe grounds.

    Don't forget board mounting holes. Grounded, of course.

    LEDs are always fun. We use SOT-23 led's to indicate successful FPGA
    configuration, CPU heartbeat, power-on, stuff like that.

    Which CPU and FPGA are you going to use? Bring out a few unused CPU
    port pins and FPGA pins to test points.

    John
     
  5. I'll have to look into that. I'm not too well versed with anything
    beyond 2 layers...

    Hmm... so putting a cap onto each power/gnd pin on the cpu is not
    100% necessary?

    Hoping to do that. :) But beauty without working won't help. :)

    Hmm... this I do not understand... guess I have to go see about
    some existing circuit to see what they are doing. You mean think
    of the data/address/control lines like a coax cable, and the 33 ohm
    terms like the 50 ohm terminater I used to use when doing coax
    ether?

    I'm looking at an eZ80190 (VQFP-100) from Zilog, as well as an
    XC3S400-4TQ144I from xilinx. Along with that, I'm hoping to put
    together 8MB of flash, and 8MB of SDRAM. I'm thinking an XC9500XL
    series should be able to handle at least the configuring of the
    FPGA from the flash. (I'd like the flash to do double duty as flash
    for the cpu as well as the fpga).

    I'm not 100% sure if the XC9500XL would be good enough to handle
    the logic for interfacing to the SDRAM for the CPU, and possibly
    the FPGA as well (I know I can do it on the FPGA, but I'd rather
    keep the FPGA "separate", something that another user can program
    and not screw up the cpu completely).


    My application needs the cpu, and the '400 FPGA from xilinx is big
    enough and cheap enough for the other parts. I may be able to fit
    my final verilog design into the '400 with it's own RAM blocks, but
    I'd like to access the SDRAM for some of the parameters/"registers"/ram,
    as that would reduce the pressure on the '400 significantly.

    Basically, if the XC9500XL could arbitrate between the two (fpga/cpu),
    and handle the sdram nastyness (timing, refresh/etc), and present
    a SRAM type of interface to the FPGA/cpu, I think the rest could
    be hacked together by me. :)


    The FPGA needs to interface with the SDRAM (to read/write things).
    All the unused pins will be brought out to other electronics, such
    as ADCs, DACs, SCRs, etc, to interface with the outside world.

    --
    *----------------------------------------------------------------------------*
    | Tobias Weingartner | Unix Guru, Admin, Systems-Dude, ... |
    | Apt B 7707-110 St. |-----------------------------------------------------|
    | Edmonton, AB T6G 1G3 | %SYSTEM-F-ANARCHISM, The OS has been overthrown |
    *----------------------------------------------------------------------------*
    [100~Plax]sb16i0A2172656B63616820636420726568746F6E61207473754A[dZ1!=b]salax
     
  6. John Larkin

    John Larkin Guest

    There are lots of ads in the backs of the electronics mags (EE Times,
    ED, EDN) these days for cheap multilayer boards. What you're intending
    sounds pretty much impossible to me on less than 4 layers, reasonable
    on 6.
    Not if you have decent power and ground layers. We just did a board
    with a 32-bit uP, an XC2S600 BGA, and four 16 mbit fast srams; 4 caps
    for the CPU, 4 for fpga core, 4 for fpga i/o, two per ram. Works great
    at 55 MHz + 100 degrees C.
    Beautiful layouts always work better!
    Large arrays of drams are distributed capacitive loads and signals
    tend to ring. The series Rs give you the option to trade off a little
    speed for damping. But why the hassle of sdram? Unless you need a lot,
    sram is a lot more friendly. You can get 1Mx16 superfast sram in a
    package nowadays.
    That should work. How will you load the uP code into the flash?
    Sounds doable. But if this is your first shot at a thing like this,
    budget for a second pass at the PCB layout, but try very hard to get
    it right the first time.

    John
     
  7. Oh, getting 4-6 layer boards done ain't that hard... I can get them
    done through the university, or even expresspcb/etc. I guess I'm going
    to shoot for 4, and not be surprised if I hit 6. :)

    I'd love to know more if possible. :) I'm always looking for examples
    that I can look at, and imitate.

    Good to know. Beauty is what I'll go for.

    At that point, I'd be looking at putting 4 of those on the board. I
    suppose that's not too much. Along with some logic to address them
    in a byte wise fashion.

    Ideally I'd like the cpu to do it (more logic) with a monitor type
    of program. Serial download of new firmware. But until I get to
    that point, jtag will likely have to be it.

    I think I'll be budgeting for 3 in the end.

    --
    *----------------------------------------------------------------------------*
    | Tobias Weingartner | Unix Guru, Admin, Systems-Dude, ... |
    | Apt B 7707-110 St. |-----------------------------------------------------|
    | Edmonton, AB T6G 1G3 | %SYSTEM-F-ANARCHISM, The OS has been overthrown |
    *----------------------------------------------------------------------------*
    [100~Plax]sb16i0A2172656B63616820636420726568746F6E61207473754A[dZ1!=b]salax
     
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