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Discussion in 'General Electronics Discussion' started by kapadokya, Sep 22, 2012.

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  1. kapadokya


    Sep 22, 2012

    I would like to ask how it is the best to organise grounds in an embedded hardware. Assuming we have digital GND, Analog GND, EARTH, Frame GND.

    Topic might see broad but I wonder you would organise them and how to connect grounds to each other. Another point is that should we connect cable shielding to Earth directly or any other method.

  2. Harald Kapp

    Harald Kapp Moderator Moderator

    Nov 17, 2011
    There is no general cure-it-all for ground issues.

    Some rules that (mostly) work:
    - keep analog and digital grounds separate wherever possible. Make only one connection between the two, either at the power supply or (if applicable) at the A/D interface (A/D-converter or D/A-converter)
    - make only one DC connection between ground and Earth, usually within the area of the power supply. You may need additional AC connections (capacitors) between circuit parts and Earth elsewhere for EMC reasons. But avoid DC ground loops.
    - USe ground planes wherever possible. Planes minimized the inductance and the loop area for return currents, thus minimizing EMI/EMC. Keep ground planes as closed as possible. If you can't avoid through-holes, at least avoid split planes.
    - If possible connect your frame to Earth. This helps reduce EMI/EMC.

    Google "topology ground connection" for more details.
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