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Dielectric & Magnetic Nanoparticles with EM field

Discussion in 'General Electronics Discussion' started by saddevilblues, Sep 2, 2013.

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  1. saddevilblues


    Sep 2, 2013
    These are few preliminary questions, if someone could help me with:

    1. What are the impacts of EM field on Aluminium Ferrite nanoparticles (carry both dielectric & magnetic features), compare to EM field applied on Aluminium oxide (pure dielectric)?

    2. If solenoid is used to generate magnetic field; what is it use to generate EM waves?

    3. Does the same 'function generator' could be used for both EM & magnetic field, to record their impacts on a material?

    4. Does an antenna necessary to embed near the material to generate the amplified waves?

    5. How to calculate the distance between the EM/Magnetic field generator to the material to produce a low frequency waves, say 10^2 - 10^7 Hz?

    6. What is a way to measure the frequency reflected back from the material?

    Your responses would be greatly appreciated. Thank you.
  2. (*steve*)

    (*steve*) ¡sǝpodᴉʇuɐ ǝɥʇ ɹɐǝɥd Moderator

    Jan 21, 2010
    I'd ask if this was homework, but the questions seem a little weird.

    Has someone asked you these questions, or are you trying to investigate something? If the latter then if we knew a little more about what you're trying to do we might be able to see what you're trying to get at.
  3. saddevilblues


    Sep 2, 2013
    Yes. I'm trying to investigate here. Actually I'm working on a research proposal for PhD, and my topic is 'Application of EM waves on dielectric & magnetic nanoparticles for enhanced oil recovery (EOR)'. I did major in petroleum engineering; where as the topic required the knowledge of electronic/physics to begin my work with, and I am kinda stuck with these questions with no luck to get clear understanding.

    I would really appreciate if you could refer/provide some answers. Thank you.
  4. john monks

    john monks

    Mar 9, 2012
    1. EM will cause ferrite nano particles to line up north pole and south pole. EM will have no affect on pure dielectric particles unless the EM is changing. Remember that magnetism is electrostatics in 4-dimensional physics. If you need further explanation of this I will be happy to tell you.

    2. A solenoid or anything else will only generate a wave if it is changing in some way. You can put a sine wave into a solenoid and it will generate an electromagnetic wave that extends out to infinity.

    3. A function generator can record a wave form on a material such as a magnetic tape. In this case the magnetic particles in the tape will align themselves recording the signal.

    4. No. And antenna generates a wave that extends to infinity. But the further you get from the antenna the weaker the wave.

    5. There are several ways to calculate this. For example if you are transmitting *a radio signal on a solid conducting surface like a piece of steel the reflected signal from the surface is shifted by 180 degrees and this phase can be compared with the transmitted signal. Use the speed of light for the speed of the signal, using twice the distance, and the phase shift and you can calculate the distance. Doing this with 10^2 hz may be very difficult and maybe impractical.

    6. You can look at the reflected signal with an oscilloscope and the frequency is one over the period of one complete waveform.
  5. saddevilblues


    Sep 2, 2013
    Thank you for your kind response & guidance.

    1. I have read a paper with the title "Novel Enhanced Oil Recovery Method using Dielectric Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Activated by Electromagnetic Waves". According to this, they had used 1kHz square EM waves continuously for 30 minutes while flooding dielectric nanoparticles through a core. And concluded that recovery of the remaining oil is caused by the disturbance on the oil-water interfaces that exist due to the oscillating EM waves imparted on the particles. Now how would you define it, if EM has no affect on dielectric particles?

    2. I got it. It means that we could customise the solenoid by using a sine wave, to generate EM waves.

    3. Again, how will it work in case of dielectric particles?

    4. Ok, which means that in a oil well antenna should embed near to the pay-zone to take a benefit.

    5. How about a 10^4 hz wave? as most of the low frequency studies have started their investigation about the dielectric properties from 10^4 hz.

    6. I understand it. Do you know that, the reflected frequency doubles for the dielectric particles such as Zinc Oxide, Aluminium Oxide? Can you explain it, why?

    One more important things, do you have a working knowledge of Accelrys Material Studio & CST Studio Suit? I clearly need a lot of guidance here.
  6. john monks

    john monks

    Mar 9, 2012
    1. EM will have an affect on dielectric particles if the EM is changing and you
    mentioned something about oscillating the EM waves.

    2. You certainly can use a solenoid affectively using it as an antenna and you
    could use two big plates as a dipole submerged in the oil.

    3. I have no experience in extracting oil but one thing that could be done to the
    dielectric particles is to place them in an alternating magnetic field causing
    them to change orientation over and over again causing them to produce heat making
    them more liquid and therefore separating them and the oil around them from the
    water or whatever else they may be bonded to.

    4. The antenna should be placed in the oil for maximum affect.

    5. 10^4 hz sounds very low for electromagnetic radiation but if you are working
    with a huge amount of oil then maybe this would be around the resonant frequency
    for this large pool of oil and maybe the best for this situation.

    6. I am not sure why the frequency would double but if you apply a very strong
    square wave in the form of an electromagnetic pulse and maintain a strong magnetic
    field during the pulse top the magnetic particles will rock back and forth and
    thus retransmitting a signal back to a magnetic receiver with an oscilloscope attached to it. And this frequency would be dependant on the strength of the magnetic field, the rotational inertia of the particle, and the strength of the magnetic dipole of the particle. Now this is very tricky because the magnetic pulse you apply to the oil will have to be orientated north and south so that the receiver will not pick up that signal very much. You would need to place the transmitting antenna and the receiving antenna at 90 degree angles so as to minimize the interaction. This process is used in magnetometers that use deionized water. This works well because the water molecule is a highly polarized dielectric particle.

    I am not familiure with Accelrys Material Studio & CST Studio Suit.

    When you complete your PhD thesis I hope you give the forum and myself credit in the references.
    Last edited: Sep 4, 2013
  7. saddevilblues


    Sep 2, 2013
    1. With reference to paper, 1 kHz square electromagnetic wave has been continuously irradiated for 30 minutes, without altering the EM field. They have used both terms EM waves and oscillating EM waves; stated that since ZnO particles are dielectric material, will be activated in the presence of oscillating EM field. This will lead to the reduction of adherence forces in the layer between oil/water interfaces and the rock formation as the ions in the surfaces of the fluid make oscillatory movement. How oscillating EM waves behave in presence of dielectric material?

    2. Can I use straight aluminum transmitter as a solenoid to generate EM waves?

    3/4. Electromagentic heating has setbacks; it requires antenna to be drilled into the reservoir to take benefit from a high frequency waves. Therefore, the antenna should be located at a very small distance to the target zone to ensure its propagation.

    5. Is it possible to use Impedance Analyzer to indirectly measure dielectric propertied of a nanoparticles dispersed in deionized water within a range of 10^4 Hz & onwards. According to a paper, ”From the dielectric permittivity spectra, it clearly exhibited the ability of ZnO nanoparticles suspension to store a large amount of energy in the low frequency range, which is between 10^2 – 10^4 Hz. Significant frequency dispersion has been observed in the low frequency region but begin to behave independently beyond 10^5 Hz.”

    6. Do you think that the dielectric particle dispersed in deionized water will become more responsive to a low frequency EM waves?

    As per your convenience, can you take a look at this paper “Novel Enhanced Oil Recovery Method using Dielectric Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Activated by Electromagnetic Waves”, and see if I might perceive it wrongly.

    I will definitely acknowledge your guidance in my PhD thesis; however, the journey to my PhD is long and I’ll require your humble assistance along the way.
  8. saddevilblues


    Sep 2, 2013
  9. john monks

    john monks

    Mar 9, 2012
    1. The dielectric material acts like an insulator in a capacitor. In this case because you are perturbating the orientation of nanotubes you are depositing a little energy in the fluid every time the polarity of your waveform changes polarity. This makes the dielectric material act a little like a resistor that is dissapating energy such as heat.

    2. I don't know what you mean by an aluminum transmitter but if you are talkng about a dipole, that is two plates that are being energized with AC, then this would be a way to go. Because of the low frequencies involved and because the nanotubes are dielectric a solenoid would be of little affect on the nanotubes. You need a changing voltage not magnetism for perturbating the nanotubes.

    3/4. The only thing that comes to mind that would be practical for setting up an electric field in the oil well is to have a stringer (drill pipe) placed inside the well casing that is being oscillated by a powerful generator. Then the released oil can be drawn up by the drill pipe. You are confined to doing everything through the well that is under water.

    5. Yes but in would be more practical to use a sine wave oscillator while carefully measuring the current and the voltage of your signal. Then you could calculate the capacitance and the resistance of the signal and thereby draw some conclusions of what is inside the well. When high frequencies are used the nanotubes are not going to move as much simply because of the momentum and much of the energy is simply going to disapate as heat.

    6. Yes I believe lower frequencies are in order to reduce the heat loss. The physics can be complex but I think the only thing that is going on is that the nanotube are moving around breaking up the oil/water barrier that thereby allowing the oil to become emulsified the water for easy extraction up the well head.

    This subject is very complex but I read the paper you referred to and went through the equations. I wrote an expletive but it is too long to post but you can certainly ask questions.
  10. saddevilblues


    Sep 2, 2013
    Hey. Thank you for you reply. Hope you are doing well.

    1. Ok. Now I know that dielectric nanoparticles behave differently compare in bulk. However do you think that in low frequency, heat dissipation will be prominent or the vibrational moment (perturbation) of the particles?

    2. How about if I am using ferromagnetic nanoparticles? How do you think the low frequency EM waves have an impact on them? Can I achieve the perturbation & magnetism both from their semiconducting mode by the application of low frequency EM waves? Where the nanoparticles just not disturb the interface but push the interface due to magnetic attraction from EM field. Further, it is stated that ferromagnetic nanoparticles are good in high frequency (microwaves) due to high electrical resistivity; is it advisable to use them for low frequency?

    3/4. The economical practicality in field is always an issue with many current researches in EOR sector. Anyhow, how do you think that salinity (salts, electrolyte) will affect the communication between dielectric/ferromagnetic particle and EM waves? Since the deep water is highly saline.

    5. “Ferromagnetic nanoparticles are insulator but behave as semiconductor with the increase in temperature”. It would be true in a reservoir temperature condition (generally >100C), which is smaller than Curie temperature of mostly ferromagnetic nanoparticles. However, how do you see the impact of temperature on a dielectric?

    6. Is it compulsory to use an amplifier with a function generator to generate low frequency EM waves? Especially when it is laboratory scale setup.

    Do you have any advice regarding the laws of physics which I should know, in term of interoperating the results related to oil recovery.
  11. john monks

    john monks

    Mar 9, 2012
    1. If the antenna or antennas are placed inside the well and deionized water is used in the ZnO salute and a low frequency such as 1000 Htz is used and because ZnO has such a high band gap (somewhere around 3 electron volts) I do not believe there would be much heating. So I would expect the ZnO nano structures to pertibate at a slow speed therefor releasing little heat. So I expect the antenna to act very much like a capacitor. Keep in mind that all the net energy going into the antenna will be turned into heat.

    2. I do not expect ferromagnetic particles to be affected very much primarily because there is very little magnetic affect coming from a low frequency antenna. Now if the antenna was in the shape of a solenoid I would expect ferromagnetic particles to be pertibated much more than with a dipole antenna. Keep in mind that an electric
    charge has no affect on a magnet. So you must use some form of a coil. If you use a high frequency like microwaves you can have great affect on magnetic particles. Remember that magnetism is simply an electrostatic force in 4-dimensional physics. This is why frequency is critical. Microwaves do not travel far through conducting materials. The energy simply turns into heat. Low frequencies are worthless if sent from a dipole antenna for ferromagnetic particles.

    3/4. I can't see trying to transmit a signal through sea water into a well. You will loose too much energy heating up the ocean. You must get as close to the oil as possible. Ideally the antenna or antenna should be immersed somewhere around the oil ZnO salute interface in the well. Keep in mind that the band gaps of oil and ZnO solution is high making them insulators. Therefore you are depending on electrostatic forces to pertibate the particles. I don't see how ferromagnetic particles would be very practical. First because you need to place a large loop antenna with very large currents in the well. Secondly you would have a harder directing the energy radiating from the antenna. Or you might have to use a very high frequency up into the megahertz which will not give you very good dispersion of radiation.

    5. I do not. Curie temperature affect magnets because heating causes the molecules to bounce around and the magnetic orientation changes as a result. However with a strong enough field the temperature's affect is less. Metals such as iron has molecules that are easily pertibated with external magnetics, heat, and even
    vibration. That is why iron is so easily picked up by a magnet. But in a ZnO nanotube the crystalline is much more rigid. And if you force them to much they break like glass. So I would expect the Curie temperature's affect to be much smaller than in iron.

    6. Yes. The voltages required to pertibate nanotubes over a large area would require hundreds or maybe even thousands of volts. And if you use ferromagnetic particles you would need possibly hundreds of amperes. Now this may be a problem because you might have to be delivering the current through the well head and the cables
    required would be enormous. So to even test this idea I would use a thousand volt pulse generator with two plates AC coupled in the salute with some crude oil and run at various frequencies around 1000 HTz. Something might have to be built but you wouldn't need to worry too much about the current as long as the water is deionized
    or distilled to prevent conduction. Yes. The electromagnetic radiation required to transmit and pertibate nanotubes in an underwater oil well would simply be enormous. So I don't see escaping the need for placing the antenna in the oil well itself. Now sea water conducts electricity very well because of the free ions floating around. If you place the antenna in the sea water the plates must make direct contact with the water or the only thing that will happen is you cause an

    accumulation of electrons and electron holes on the surface of the ocean with very little penetration. You will be left with nothing by a capacitor or a grossly mismatched antenna. Another point is that an underwater oils reserve is hundred or even
    thousands of feet below the seabed. So trying to penetrate this mass the with an EM wave would pose a big challenge. My instincts are to use the well casing as one connection of a dipole and a stringer, the pipe intering into the well, as the other connection then driving the whole works with a generator from the well head.
  12. saddevilblues


    Sep 2, 2013
    1. I would like you to scale it down to laboratory setup, as my study will mainly be based on laboratory scale with only the suggestions for field implications. I believe the phenomenon will be the same as you described in lab scale?
    Can Aluminium Oxide be used in comparison with ZnO to study the EM waves on dielectric particles, as Al2O3 is ceramic means best insulator?

    2. Let say I’m using Zinc Ferrite as ferromagnetic nanoparticles, and replicated the lab scale experiment to a reservoir temperature (<100C); wouldn’t the particles behave as semiconductors at increasing temperature? If yes, does low frequency EM waves affect only by magnetizing the particles with applied magnetic field? Or does the corresponding electric field will going to impact as well?
    How I could use solenoid in both cases (dielectric/ferromagnetic) to generate EM waves? Does it require altering voltage/current to facilitate each case? Or do you advice that I should use both dipole antenna/solenoid in individual cases?

    3/4. There are few on-going researches which tried to eliminate the sea water factor, to penetrate the waves along the sea bed. I’m attaching a paper, which could provide you the insight; however as I told you I am not looking for field implementation currently. Please refer to this link:
    My question was how salinity could affect the interaction between nanoparticles and EM waves? As you know, deep reservoir water is highly saline and even if you could arrange deionized water to prepare nano-dispersion, it will be going to mix with the reservoir saline water once you pump the nanofluid. In lab scale as well, the core flooding is done by saline water as a method of secondary recovery, before to apply any tertiary recovery method. What I am curious is to understand the changes saline water will bring to the communication between dielectric/ferromagnetic nanoparticles & EM waves? It is well establish that dielectric constant of saline water decreased with the increase in salt concentration; and it further decreased with the increase in temperature.

    5/6. The idea to use well casing and stringer as a means to penetrate the waves is much more applicable; because placing an antenna wouldn’t give you the expected result as it is still a dilemma to find the target zone for the trapped oil.
    Will the ferromagnetic nanoparticles be attracted to the source of applied magnetic field (say solenoid), like they do to permanent magnet? I want to model a 2-D study to investigate the flow of nanofluid through a layer of sand/glass by the application of EM field, to determine the improvement in sweep efficiency.
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