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Building a linear power supply

Discussion in 'Electronic Basics' started by Andrew Wagstaff, Nov 14, 2011.

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  1. Hi

    I'm looking at building a linear power supply. I'm thinking of using a
    12V 300VA torodial and linear regulators. I really want a power supply
    that can be used to power both AT and ATX computer motherboards, has got
    variable current limiting (3.3V, 5V and 12V) and displays current. I
    haven't seen anything in the marketplace, so I was looking at building
    my own.

    The voltage and current ratings I'm looking at currently are:
    3.3V 10A, thinking a 5A variable reg and using a pass transistor to get
    up to 10A.
    5V 5A-8A, thinking a 5A variable reg and a pass transistor.
    12V 5A, thinking a 5A variable reg.

    The voltage drop from 12VAC (~17VDC using a bridge rectifier) down to
    the lower regulators (3.3V and 5V) was concerning me, as I was looking
    at producing around 60W-100W of heat just for the 5V reg.

    Was also considering having 4.5V, 6V and 9V. Was going to use another
    variable reg - only need around 1A and using a switch to change between
    them.

    Another problem is how do I get the -ve voltages for the 5V and 12V
    (only need ~500mA), do I just use some sort of polarity inverter or do I
    need a centre tapped transformer?

    I already have most of the components (except the torodial), that's why
    I was thinking of going with linear. I do have some components to make a
    5V switchmode, but I wanted to keep the power supply as quiet as I could.

    Thanks

    Andrew
     
  2. Jamie

    Jamie Guest

    why not simply use an existing computer supply and have inline current
    limits on the outputs of choice?

    The current limit circuits can be designed using power fets to pass the
    source voltage with current sensing to drive a comparator that drives
    the power mosfet. With a little hysteresis you can keep the fet out of
    the linear mode and force it to simply shut off if current limit is reached.

    Pots on a panel can set the (I) range of each output..

    Jamie
     
  3. Hi Jamie

    I have tried before to use a computer power supply as a high current 12V
    supply before, but found that unless the 5V line was loaded at around
    1.5-2A, the 12V line dropped down to around 11V.
    I might not be using the 5V line when I want to use the 12V or 3.3V lines.
    The current limiting I was thinking of using, was using a 5A linear
    regulator wired as a current regulator.

    Thanks

    Andrew
     
  4. Just revised my design a bit and are now thinking of using the 9V 300VA
    torodial, instead of the 12V one. Thinking I'll use a low dropout reg
    with a pass transistor to get the required current at 12V.
    This should make the heat production from the 5V and 3.3V a bit less,
    but still not sure how to get the -5V and -12V.

    Thanks again

    Andrew
     
  5. ehsjr

    ehsjr Guest

    It's going to take up a lot of bench space and produce a lot of
    waste heat. It'll be heavy. And it will cost you a lot. Your
    proposed 12V transformer won't work. You'll need an 18V transformer
    for the 12V 5 amp supply**. If you use the 18V transformer for all
    three supplies your dissipation will be about 400 watts under full
    load. Better would be 3 transformers, or a single transformer with
    3 secondaries. You'll still produce a lot of heat, no matter what
    you do, if you go with a linear design. A linear supply to power
    a PC is a really *bad* choice.

    ** Regarding the voltage:
    12VAC input to a bridge rectifier and capacitive filter will
    produce 16.97 VDC, ignoring the voltage drop in the diodes.
    Under a heavy load, you'll get a drop in the diodes totaling
    about 2.2 volts, reducing the voltage to 14.77 max. Ripple
    will reduce that further. The LM338 (5 Amp Adjustable Regulator)
    needs a minimum of 2.7 volts overhead at 5 amps, so it will
    drop out. In fact, it will only regulate for the briefest of
    moments when the AC is at peak. Say we figure about 3 volts
    ripple and about 2.2 volts drop in the diodes. That means we
    need 3 + 2.2 + 14.7 or 19.7 volts DC peak across the filter caps.
    That implies a 14 volt AC transformer which will produce ~19.79 DC
    peak across the caps. However, there will be some voltage drop
    in the transformer under load, and the input line voltage can vary,
    too. Say the line voltage is 110 instead of 120. With an 18 volt
    transformer fed by 110 instead of 120, we get 18*110/120 or
    16.5 volts AC. We can drop to 14 volts AC and still work. If the
    transformer drops 10% under load, it still yields 14.85
    volts AC and will charge the caps to 21 volts. Even if the
    ripple was 4 volts, we'd still have 15 volts input to the
    LM338 which is plenty of headroom.

    The above is in no way intended to encourage you to build the
    supply you described. OTOH, I don't want to discourage
    experimentation/learning, but the proposed project has too many
    downsides to be worthwhile without some compelling reason(s).

    Ed
     
  6. Jamie

    Jamie Guest

    That's not a problem, have yourself a front panel indicator lamp
    operating from the 5 Volt supply with a little extra load on it, that
    will satisfy most computer supplies and give you an idiot light, also
    add a 5 volt cooling fan..

    Jamie
     
  7. P E Schoen

    P E Schoen Guest

    "Andrew Wagstaff" wrote in message
    A single 16 VCT transformer can be used for all of the required voltages. A
    FWCT rectifier with two diodes and a big capacitor can provide the raw 10
    VDC for the 5V linear regulator (and 3.3V).

    And another, with diodes and capacitor reversed, can be used for the -5 VDC
    supply, which is usually much lower current.

    You can also get an adjustable buck supply (1.25-30V, 2-3 amps) on eBay for
    about $4-$6 including shipping:
    http://www.ebay.com/itm/LM2596-DC-DC-Step-down-Adjustable-Power-Supply-Module-/260901219660

    For the + and - 12 VDC supplies, you can use a voltage doubler made with two
    capacitors and two diodes for each polarity, which generates about 25 VDC
    open circuit, and is also inherently current limiting because the
    transformer is capacitively coupled to the output.

    And perhaps the easiest solution is to add a load to the +5 VDC output of
    the ATX supply. It's about 20W but for a test setup efficiency and heat are
    not much of an issue. Use a 5 volt fan as part of the load.

    Paul
     
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