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Actuality of the electric current

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    The terminology used in this article:
    [] indicates subscript.
    ~A means the vector A.
    <four> means 4.

    9 Electric current similar to water current
    Ed 01.12.31 -----------------------------------------
    Abstract
    --------
    A perfect comparison between a closed circuit of water current and a
    closed
    circuit of electric current is made and Ohm's law is obtained in this
    manner and it is shown that, contrary to the current belief, existence
    of
    conduction current is not because of the existence of any electric
    field
    in the conductor, and the linear relation ~J=g~E cannot be valid. The
    relaxation time (necessary for the current to reach its final speed)
    and
    the final speed (drift velocity) of the current are obtained in the
    above-mentioned manner, and it is shown that, contrary to what is
    believed
    at present, both of them are independent of the chosen standard unit
    charge (eg electron charge or coulomb) and its mass. It is also shown
    that, contrary to the current belief, alternating current is steady.
    We also prove the existence of a kind of resistance arising from the
    configuration of the circuit. Action mechanism of transistor is
    explained
    and a hydrodynamical analogue for it is introduced: both confirming the
    material presented earlier.

    I. Introduction
    ---------------
    What is presently propounded as the existence cause of an elrectric
    conduction current in a conductor is the existence of some electric
    field
    arising from the power supply (sourcs) in the conductor and the
    response
    of the conductor to this field in the form of producing current density
    (eg
    in the form of ~J=g~E for an ohmic material). In other words it is
    thought
    that existence of the conduction current necessitates existence of an
    electrostatic field porducing it, and also existence of the potential
    difference necessitates existence of an electrostatic field causing it.

    And then an entire similarity is considered between the electrostatics
    and
    the subject of electric current, eg as in the electrostatics, the curl
    of
    the above mentioned field is considered equal to zero in the conductor
    and
    then eg it is tried that a conduction problem to be solved in the same
    way
    as an electrostatic problem (by obtaining appropriate solution to
    Laplace's
    equation (see Foundations of Electromagnetic Theory by Reitz, Milford
    and
    Christy, Addison-Wesley, 1979)).

    In this article considering the entire similarity existent between the
    electric current and mechanical current of water it is shown that,
    really,
    existence of the conduction current does not necessitate existence of
    any
    electrostatic field in the conductor (or wire) carrying the current,
    and
    the potential difference here is other than the potential difference in
    the
    electrostatics, and in this manner we obtain Ohm's law.

    II. Water circuit and Ohm's law
    -------------------------------
    Consider the water circuit shown in Fig. 1.

    __________________________________________________
    | ,---------------------------------, |
    | | | |
    | | |^^^^` `^^^^^|
    | | ||~| |~| |
    | | || | | | |
    | | || | | | |
    | | || | | | |
    | | || | | | |
    | | || | | | |
    | | || | | | |
    | | || | | | |
    | | _ ||_| |_| |
    | | /\`|`/\ |____ _____|
    | `-----------|--`+`--|-------------' |
    | <------ /`|`\ |
    ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^'

    Fig. 1. Schematic figure of a water circuit.

    This circuit is a closed tube full of water set on a horizontal level
    which
    its water is being forced to circulate by a pump in the tube.

    Suppose that the pump is switched off and the water is motionless. We
    want
    to see what happens when the pump is switched on. By switching the pump
    on,
    its blades exert force on the water particles adjacent to them, and
    these
    particles transfer this force to other particles, and altogether the
    water
    gains speed gradually. In other words the energy transferred from the
    pump
    to the water immediately after switching the pump on causes increase in
    the
    kinetic energy of the water, ie the energy of the pump is conserved as
    increase in the kinetic energy of the water. But does the water in each

    cycle conserve the energy received from the pump as the increase in the

    kinetic energy of itself? If so, we must expect an infinite speed for
    the
    water after elapsing of enough time, while we know that this is not the
    case
    and after some time the speed of water reaches a constant limit while
    the
    pump is still in operation and is giving the water more and more
    energy.
    So, where does the energy of the pump, which no longer is conserved as
    increase in the kinetic energy of the water, go? The answer is that
    this
    energy is dissipated as heat in different parts of the circuit and the
    conservation law of energy remains consistent.

    Let's see how every part of the circuit changes the energy of the pump
    into
    heat when the circulation speed of the water in the circuit has reached
    the
    constant limit. Imagine a definite drop of the water just when a blade
    of
    the pump is directly exerting force on it. This drop is propelled by
    this
    force (but since we have considered the situation of the constant speed
    of
    the water, this drop does not accelerate due to this force). When the
    drop
    has been pushed forward a little, the blades of the pump directly exert
    force on another equivalent drop which transfers this force directly to
    the
    previous pushed forward drop. In this same manner it is seen that the
    pump
    directly and indirectly exerts force on the first drop during its
    circulation in the circuit. Since, exerting this force on the drop, the

    drop is displaced, this force (being exerted by the pump) performs work
    on
    the drop. Therefore, the energy of the pump given to the drop is this
    same
    work performed on the drop which we show it by V and attribute it to
    some
    potential difference between two relevant points of the circuit (we
    mean by
    the "potential difference" the work performed on this (standard)
    definite
    drop by the above mentioned exerted force during the displacement
    between
    the two points). But we know that this work does not increase the
    kinetic
    energy of the drop. Thus, what occurs to this work which according to
    the
    conservation law of energy does not disappear? The answer is that this
    work
    appears in the form of heat arising from the friction, ie heat arising
    from the opposition of the drop to the drops in front of it which
    exerting
    opposite force (and consequently performing negative work) try to
    prevent
    the drop from accelerating.

    Now let's see how much energy of the pump in every part of the circuit
    changes into the heat when the circulation speed of the water in the
    circuit has reached the constant limit. Suppose that a part of the
    circuit
    is as shown in Fig. 2 in which the arrow shows the direction of the
    water
    flow (or current).

    /^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^/^^^\
    ,`.` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` `,``/^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^/^\
    A[1]( . ( ( ---------> ( )A[2]
    `, ' . . . . . . . . . . .`,.\__________________________\_/
    \,________________________\,_,/ l[2]
    l[1]

    Fig. 2. Water current in the two tubes is the same, but the force
    exerted on a drop in the part l[2] is A[1]/A[2]fold.

    Suppose that the two lengths l[1] and l[2] are equal. We want to see
    what the
    magnitude of the above mentioned force (arising from the pump) exerted
    on the
    above mentioned standard drop will be in the part l[2] if this force is
    F in
    the part l[1]. If only the tube shown by the dotted line, which its
    cross section is equal to A[2] and is positioning just opposite to the
    tube
    l[2], was to be displased exerting force on the water of the tube l[2],
    the
    above mentioned force in the part l[2] would be still the same F. But
    the
    dotted tube is not the sole one displacing, and it is obvious that all
    the
    water of the tube l[1] will be displaced entering the tube l[2],
    because
    the two tubes l[1] and l[2] are in series and the water current, which
    we
    show it as I, is the same in each. The whole tube l[1] contains, in
    number,
    A[1]/A[2] tubes each equivalent to the tube l[2], and the situation is
    similar to when this number of tubes are set in series and transferring
    their
    forces to each other finally exert their forces on the tube l[2] (see
    Fig. 3).

    /^^^^^^^^^^^/^\/^^^^^^^^^^^/^\/^^^^^^^^^^^/^\ /^^^^^^^^^^^/^\
    ( ( ( ( ( ( )....( ( )
    \___________\_/\___________\_/\___________\_/ \___________\_/
    l[2]

    Fig. 3. Forces of A[1]/A[2] tubes are added together,
    exerted on the tube l[2].

    It is obvious that in this state the above mentioned force exerted on
    the
    mentioned drop in the part l[2] is equal to (A[1]/A[2])F. Since the
    ratio of
    this force to the force exerted on the drop in the part l[1] (ie F) is
    equal
    to A[1]/A[2], we conclude that the force exerted on the standard drop
    is
    inversely proportional to the cross-section of the part of the tube in
    which
    the drop is located. Therefore also the work performed by the mentioned
    force exerted on the drop is inversely proportional to the
    cross-section of
    the part of the tube in which the drop is located, and since we know
    that
    this work is proportional to the length of the part of the tube having
    a
    constant cross-section which the drop must travel, altogether this
    work is proportional to l/A in which l is the length of the part of the

    circuit that has the constant cross-section A. In other words this part
    of
    the circuit dissipates as heat some energy of the pump which is
    proportional
    to l/A.

    It was cleared that in series parts of the circuit everywhere the ratio
    l/A
    was more, some more energy of the pump would be dissipated as heat.
    Thus the
    ratio l/A is indication of the resistance to the water current in that
    part
    of the circuit, and we define it, when multiplied by a definite
    constant
    coefficient c, as "resistance" in a water circuit indicating it by R.
    Therefore, we showed if the current (I) was constant (which this
    occurred
    when the resistances were in series), then the potential difference
    between
    the two ends of a resistance (V) would be proportional to the
    resistance
    (R=cl/A).

    Now consider some part of the circuit as shown in Fig. 4.

    ---------------------------------
    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
    . . . . . . . . r. . . . . . . .
    . . __________________________. .
    . .|__________________________| .
    . . . . . . . . q. . . . . . . .
    . . __________________________. .
    . .|__________________________| .
    _________________p_______________

    Fig. 4. The work performed on a drop being transferred from an end
    to the other end is independent of whether the path is p,
    q, or r.

    The work performed on the drop by the above mentioned force when
    passing
    this part of the circuit, is independent of the choice of the path p, q
    or r, but the water current in these three paths is proportional to
    their
    cross-sections. As we can see the amount of prevention of p is more
    than
    of q, and of q is more than of r. Thus the criterion which we obtain in
    this
    state for the resitance is the same proportion of it to the inverse of
    the
    cross-section, and since l is the same for the parallel resistances in
    this
    state, the same definition of R=cl/A is still true for resistance.
    Therefore,
    we showed if the potential difference (V) was constant (which this
    occurred
    when the resistances were in parallel), then the current in each
    resistance
    (I) would be inversely proportional to the resistance (R=cl/A).

    Now suppose that the mass of our standard drop is m and suppose that
    the
    opposing force (of the other drops on the way in the circuit), which as
    we
    explained prevent the drop from accelerating, is proportional to the
    velocity of the drop with the proportion coefficient -G (it is obvious
    that
    G is proportional to m, because the bigger the drop, the more the
    retarding
    force is). In this state supposing that the force exerting on the drop
    due
    to the pump is F and the speed of the drop is v we have the following
    equation of motion:

    mdv/dt = F-Gv (1)

    When the speed of the drop (ie the speed of the water) has become
    constant,
    we have dv/dt=0 and consequently v=F/G, ie v is proportional to F, and
    since
    in a constant resistance, v is proportional to I and F is proportional
    to V,
    we conclude that if the resistance (R) is constant then the current (I)
    will
    be proportional to the potential (V).

    In summary, we showed," If I is constant, then R will be proportional
    to V,
    and if V is constant, then R will be proportional to 1/I, and if R is
    constant, then I will be proportional to V ". We conclude from these
    three
    deductions that R is proportional to V/I which is the same famous
    relation
    of Ohm's law in the ohmic electric circuits.

    Here it is opportune to obtain the complete solution of the equation
    (1).
    This will be v(t)=(1/G)F(1-exp(-Gt/m)) if the initial condition is
    v[0]=0.
    Therefore, the relaxation time is <tau>=m/G. Since as we said G is
    proportional to m, the relaxation time <tau> is independent of m.
    Likewise,
    since the above mentioned force F exerted on the mass m (arising from
    the
    pump) is obviously proportional to the mass m, the final speed of the
    drop
    v=F/G, in which both F and G are proportional to m, is also independent
    of m.
    In other words both the relaxation time, ie the time that the water
    speed
    requires to reach its constant limit (see the beginning of this
    article),
    and the final speed of the current, as it is expected, are independent
    of
    what the bigness or mass of our standard drop is.

    As it is quite obvious there is a thorough similarity between the above

    water circuit and an electric closed circuit in which the one coulomb
    unit
    charge plays the role of the above mentioned standard drop, and in fact
    in electric circuits a quite similar event occurs, not as it is
    supposed
    at present an electrostatic field in the wires of the circuit arising
    from
    the battery causes flowing of the electric current in the electric
    circuit!
    The only role of the power supply, eg the battery, (similar to the role
    of
    the water pump) is putting into circulation the current of valence
    electrons
    of the wires using chemical reactions or electromagnetic effects or
    ....,
    and nothing else; not producing electrostatic field which necessitates
    existence of electric net charge assembly which really does not exist.

    The fact is that it is thought erroneously that wherever there exist
    electric conduction current (I) and potential difference (V), they
    should
    have been produced because of the existence of some electrostatic field

    there, while this is not the case for the electric current flowed by a
    power
    supply, eg a battery, in a closed circuit, but, quite like in the above

    mentioned water circuit, this is only transferring of the force exerted
    on
    the electrons in the battery (or in other power supplies) which causes
    their motion throughout the closed circuit, not existence of any
    electrostatic field in the wires. Besides, the potential difference,
    by which we mean the amount of work performed on one coulomb of
    electric
    charge (or on a standard drop) when being transferred from one point to
    another point, is not produced necessarily because of an electrostatic
    field,
    but as we saw the above mentioned forces exerted by the battery and
    transferred through the train of electrons can produce it.

    For better understanding of the above material, actuality of conduction

    has been presented in a simple manner in the 12th article of this book.

    Attention to this point is also interesting that as we reasoned
    beforehand
    (when discussing the complete solution of Equation (1)), the relaxation
    time
    <tau> and the final speed v, both of the standard charge, are
    independent
    of the mass (and also of the charge) of the (standard) charge chosen as

    the unit charge (and then eg contrary to what is current do not depend
    on
    the mass or charge of the electron), and only depend on the kind of the

    conductor, because G depends on it.

    Now let's see whether really the linear relation ~J=g~E is satisfied or
    not
    when the electrostatic field ~E is exerted in an ohmic conductor
    causing
    production of temporary current density ~J (which eventually leads to
    proper distribution of charge in this conductor such that the field
    will
    vanish inside it being normal to its surface on its surface). Consider
    a
    point inside the conductor in a time when the electrostatic field has
    not
    been exerted yet. The valence electrons are stationing themselves
    beside
    their atoms. Now consider the moment that an electrostatic field is
    exerted
    in this point. Certainly this is not the case that immediately after
    exertion
    of the field in this point, without elapsing any time, current density
    ~J
    becomes flowing in this point. It is quite obvious that a time interval
    is
    necessary for the valence electrons to separate from their atoms and
    becoming flowing produce the current density. Just at the beginning of
    this
    interval, while there exists the field ~E in this point, there is no
    current
    there (ie ~J is zero). After elapsing a fraction of the mentioned time
    interval, some current becomes flowing (ie ~J reaches a fraction of its

    maximum), and since this very amount of current accomplishes a fraction
    of
    the final distribution of charge (which will make the field vanish
    inside
    the conductor), the field ~E is also decreased becoming less than its
    maximum (approaching zero). This process continues until when the
    current
    reaches its maximum which is simultaneous with a more decreased field.
    After then both ~E and ~J will be decreased approaching zero.
    In summary we can see the process of the simultaneous changes of ~E and
    ~J
    schematically in Fig. 5.

    A
    | A
    | | A
    | | | A
    | | | | A
    ~E | | | | | .

    A A
    A | | A
    ~J . | | | | .

    Fig. 5. Schematic diagram of the simultaneous time-changes of ~J and
    ~E.

    What can be deduced definitely is that ~E and ~J don't have any linear
    relation in the form of ~J=g~E with the constant coefficient g, even
    for
    the ohmic mediums.

    III. Whether alternating current is not steady
    ----------------------------------------------
    We have the equation of continuity <round><rho>/<round>t+<del>.~J=0.
    Steady
    current is a current in which, passing the time, concentration of
    charge in
    each point does not alter, or in other words the charge is not
    condensible or
    expansible, and then it is necessary that <round><rho>/<round>t to be
    zero
    for steady currents which according to the equation of continuity it is
    also
    necessary that <del>.~J=0 for these currents. But we should notice that
    in
    a steady current it is not necessary that the current has also a
    particular
    form, ie it is not necessary that <round>~J/<round>t=~0 for a steady
    current.
    Unfortunately this matter is not observed in many of the textbooks and
    circuits carrying steady currents are considered equivalent to direct
    current
    circuits with this wrong conception that alternating currents are not
    steady,
    while according to the above-mentioned point although in an alternating
    current circuit <round>~J/<round>t is not ~0, the alternating current
    is
    certainly steady, because in a closed circuit, including the power
    supply,
    carrying an alternating current, valence electrons of the circuit
    itself
    (not the external electrons added to the circuit) only alternately
    change
    direction of their circulation in the circuit, while, passing the time,
    the
    charge density is constant (and in fact equal to zero) in each point.
    The
    situation is quite like a closed tube full of water which its water is
    oscillating in the tube because of the alternating change in the
    direction
    of pumping the water by a pump installed in the tube as a part of it.

    IV. Resistance due to the configuration of the circuit
    ------------------------------------------------------
    We intend to prove the existence of another kind of electrical
    resistance.
    This resistance is arising from the form of the current path.
    Current-carrying electrons are compelled to move within the boundaries
    of
    the current-carrying wire in order to cause the electric current. Thus,
    naturally, the form, or in other words, the configuration of the
    current path
    can cause a resistance on the path of the current that is other than
    Ohm's
    resistance, discussed above, arising from the nature of the current
    path
    (wire). The cause of this resistance is the mechanical stresses due to
    the
    collisions of the electrons with the materials of the current path and
    their
    pressures against these materials (the amount of which depends on the
    form
    of the current path). The situation is similar to the familiar case of
    a
    conductor having an excess electric charge: in this state the charge
    will
    be gathered on the external surface of the conductor and will exert an
    outward normal force (or an outward pressure) on the surface that (this

    force or pressure) will be canceled out by the mechanical stresses of
    the
    material of the (surface of the) conductor.

    Attention to the following example will clarify the issue. Consider a
    part of
    a current-carrying wire (from a circuit) (Fig. 6(a)). (Suppose that the
    arrow
    shows the direction of the motion of the electrons.) Make a loop from
    this
    part as shown in Fig. 6(b) such that firstly the part ab of the path of
    "going" (related to the left (entrance) branch) of the loop and the
    part
    ab of the path of "backing" (related to the right (exit) branch) of the

    loop are very close together but without any contact (at present), and
    secondly these two parts of the "going" and "backing" paths (ie ab's)
    are
    quite parallel to each other.

    ___________________________________________________________________
    ( ) -----------------> )
    ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    (a)

    ____ ...... ____
    _-'`` <----- ``'-_
    ./` _,--''''''''''''--,_ `\.
    / /' `\ \
    ,` /` `\ `,
    | | | |
    ` \ / '
    `\ `\. ./' /`
    _____`-____`_-_.________ ..--'` _-`_____
    ( ) -----> __,-' -----> )
    ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^````^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    a b

    (b)

    Fig. 6. The current-carrying looped wire makes
    the electron move in the loop.

    It is obvious that the current in the part ab of each of the "going"
    and
    "backing" paths is still from left to right having the same amount of
    the
    circuit current.

    Now let's make these two parts (ab's) in (gentle) contact with each
    other.
    What is the situation of the current in this double part of ab now? If
    the
    (above-mentioned) resistance arising from the configuration of the wire
    did not exist, the most correct answer would be that we should not
    expect
    any alteration and as the path of the current would have become double
    in
    the distance between a and b (being both the "going" and "backing"
    paths)
    the current would be two times more than the general current of the
    circuit
    (becasuse of the general current of the circuit both in the "going" and
    "backing" paths of ab). But certainly this is not the case completely,
    and
    due to the contact of the two "going" and "backing" parts of ab a part
    of
    the previously mentioned stresses will be redistributed (trying to
    become
    minimum) and then the above-mentioned resistance, arising from the
    configuration, will change and then the current in the loop and also in

    the common part of ab will be other than the case before the contact;
    the
    quite clear reason for this statement is that when the two parts of ab
    are
    in contact we expect in principle that because of the positioning of a
    before b the current in the loop to be counterclockwise (from a to b)
    not
    clockwise (from b to a) as before the contact.

    Now imagine that these parts of ab are welded together, and in the
    distance
    between a and b we have only a single wire with a thickness equal to
    the
    wire thickness in other parts of the circuit (and loop). In this state
    if we
    want to visualise the situation just before the contact of the two
    "going"
    and "backing" parts of ab as one we explained above, we must say that
    before
    the above-mentioned gentle contact the cross-section of the circuit in
    the
    "going" part of ab and also in the "backing" part of ab is half of the
    cross-section in other parts of the circuit, then the speed of the
    electrons
    in each of the two "going" and "backing" parts of ab is twice as more
    as the
    electrons speed in other parts of the circuit. Now, if these two
    slenderized
    "going" and "backing" parts of ab are to be brought into contact with
    each other (welded together) and also if the currents are not to be
    changed,
    the situation will be as shown in Fig. 7, ie as we see in this figure,
    according to the above reasoning assuming ineffectiveness of the
    configuration on how the current is distributed, we expect that the
    current
    in the part ab of the circuit to be twice as more as the general
    current of
    the circuit halh of which, of course, will be canceled as the "backing"
    (counterclockwise) current in the loop.

    _.,--''''''''''''''''''''--,._
    _,-' <----- `-,_
    / _.--'''``````````````'''--._ \
    ,` /` `\ ',
    | | | |
    `, \_ _/ ,`
    \ `'--..,______________,..--'` /
    `'-,__ -----> __,-'`
    /^\^^^^^^^^^^^^` -----> `^^^^^^^^^^^^\
    \ / -----> _,--'``````````````'--,_ -----> /
    ```````````````` a b ``````````````

    Fig. 7. What is the situation of current in the part ab and in the
    loop?

    It is obvious of course that this won't be the case in practice,
    because,
    as a rule, as we said, we expect in principle that because of the
    positioning
    of the point a before b in the current path the current in the loop to
    be
    (clockwise) from a to b.

    The conclusion we can decisively draw is that, anyway, the inclination
    existent in the circuit to produce a counterclockwise current in the
    loop before the contact of the two previously separated parts of ab,
    now after the contact (or welding of the two parts), depending on the
    configuration of the current-carrying wire of the loop relative to the
    configuration of the main wire of the circuit, will have a noticeable
    effect
    on the current which as a rule is expected to be clockwise in the loop
    (because of the point a being before b); and, in practice, the current
    in the
    loop may be even counterclockwise, even with little current, depending
    on
    the case; ie in other words we can have a negative resistance (of the
    configuration kind) causing the current in the part between a and b to
    be
    more than the general current of the circuit. We have pointed to such a
    case
    in the 8th article of this book. We can also try the experiment
    suggested
    in Fig. 8 in order to see whether the current in the loop is clockwise
    or
    counterclockwise, and with what current.

    ____________________
    _-'`` ``'-_
    ./` _,--''''''''''''''''''--,_ `\.
    / /' `\ \
    ,` /` `\ `,
    | | | |
    ` \ / `
    `\ `\. ./` /`
    __________-. ``--..______________..--`` _-`
    ----> __,-'
    ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^| |^^^^^````
    a | |b
    | |
    | |
    | |
    | |

    Fig. 8. Is the current in the loop clockwise or counterclockwise?

    V. Action mechanism of transistor
    ---------------------------------
    As a general confirmation of the mechanism presented in this article
    for
    the resistance arising from the configuration of the current path and
    also
    of the validity of the comparison made between the electric current and
    water current we shall proceed to describe the action mechanism of
    transistor in this section.

    We know that some different materials gather electrostatic charge when
    robbed with each other. Consider two typical materials of this kind and
    call them 1 and 2. Assume that some electrons will flow from 1 to 2
    when
    they are brought into contact. Important for us in this discussion is
    the
    tendency (due to any reason, eg the molecular structure of the
    materials)
    existent in the contact between 1 and 2 to cause the electrons to flow
    from 1 to 2.

    Now let's connect the negative pole of a battery to 1 and its positive
    pole to 2. The battery tends to make the electrons flow from its
    negative
    pole to its positive pole in a circuit external to the battery a part
    of
    which is the battery itself. Such a flow will be from 1 to 2
    considering
    the above-mentioned connecting manner. But as we said, regardless of
    the
    stimulation of the battery, the materials 1 and 2 themselves have a
    tendency to establish an electron current from 1 to 2. Thus, it is
    obvious
    that the battery will establish a current of electrons, from 1 to 2, in
    the circuit without encountering much resistance (due to the junction
    1-2).

    But when the negative pole of the battery is connected to 2 and its
    positive
    pole is connected to 1, the battery as before wants to produce a
    current of
    electrons from its negative pole to its positive pole in the circuit a
    part
    of which is the battery itself, and this necessitates flow of electrons
    from 2 to 1 which is opposite to the natural tendency of the junction
    1-2;
    thus, the electron current of the circuit will encounter much
    resistance
    at the junction 1-2. In other words for prevailing over this additional

    resistance in order to have a current with the same intensity as before
    in the circuit it is necessary to use a battery with a higher voltage.

    Let's show the tendency of a junction to establish a current of
    electrons
    by an arrow in the direction of this tendency. Suppose that we have two
    adjacent junctions of the above-mentioned type (having natural tendency
    to make the electrons flow) but with two opposite directions of
    tendency
    in a single block; see Fig. 9. We name such a block as transistor.

    <== ==> ==> <==
    _________________________ _________________________
    | | | | | | | |
    | | | | | | | |
    | | | | | | | |
    | 1 | 2 | 3 | or | 1 | 2 | 3 |
    | | | | | | | |
    | | | | | | | |
    | | | | | | | |
    ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    (a) (b)

    Fig. 9. Two types of transistor.

    Let's construct a circuit as shown in Fig. 10 using a transitor of the
    type (a) in Fig. 9, two batteries, some connecting wires and an on/off
    switch.

    ==> <==
    _________________________
    | | | |
    | | | |
    | | | |
    ,---------------| 1 | 2 | 3 |---------------,
    | | | | | |
    | | | | | |
    | | | | | |
    \ ^^^^^^^^^^^^|^^^^^^^^^^^^ |
    `\. a | b |
    | | |
    | | |
    | | | | |
    '--------| |----------------'------------| ... |--------'
    | c |
    - + - +

    Fig. 10. A typical circuit of a transistor of the type (a) in Fig.
    9.

    When the switch is off we have only a weak clockwise current of
    electrons
    in the right loop. When the switch if on the clockwise electron current
    in the left loop begins and increases until the current has such an
    intensity that causes some part of the current previously flowed in the
    middle wire to be exerted on (ie to flow in) the right loop through the

    junction 2-3 causing increase in the weak current of electrons in this
    loop.
    And this will be more effective when the material 2 is thinner and
    wider
    because in such a case the electrons passing through the junction 1-2
    will be exerted on (or will be forced onto) the junction 2-3 more
    readily
    and more effectively.

    If we construct the circuit of Fig. 11 using a transistor of the type
    (b)
    in Fig. 9, we shall observe that while the switch being off there will
    be
    only a weak counterclockwise current of electrons in the right loop.

    <== ==>
    _________________________
    | | | |
    | | | |
    | | | |
    ,---------------| 1 | 2 | 3 |---------------,
    | | | | | |
    | | | | | |
    | | | | | |
    \ ^^^^^^^^^^^^|^^^^^^^^^^^^ |
    `\. a | b |
    | | |
    | | |
    | | | | |
    '--------| |----------------'------------| ... |--------'
    | c |
    + - + -

    Fig. 11. A typical circuit of a transistor of the type (b) in Fig.
    9.

    And when the switch is on a counterclockwise current of electrons will
    begin and increase in the left loop. This current will become such
    intense
    that eventually a part of the electron current, previously flowed in
    the
    middle wire at the point c towards 2, now will be exerted on (or will
    go into) the right loop causing increase in the weak counterclockwise
    current of electrons in this loop. This will be more effective when the

    material 2 is thinner and wider because in such a case the electrons
    passing through the junction 3-2 will be exerted on (or will be forced
    onto) the junction 2-1 more readily and more effectively (causing
    increase
    in the electron current passing through the left battery which
    eventually
    will cause more increase in the electron current passing through the
    right battery).

    Now imagine such an ideal state of the figures 10 and 11 (with switches
    being on) that the magnitudes of the upward and downward currents in
    the
    middle wire are the same and then these currents cancel each other.
    In such a state that there is no current in this wire (and a
    considerable
    current in the whole circuit) we can eliminate this wire from the whole
    circuit in principle. But, could we do this before switching on the
    switch?
    It seems that the answer is negative and the current in a circuit
    without
    the middle wire cannot increase to the extent accessible by a circuit
    with
    the middle wire (while the switch being on). If so, we have presented a

    practical (or experimental) confirmation of the starter mechanism (ie
    the
    first current in a loop that increases and eventually causes increase
    in
    the current in the other loop due to the exertion of the current
    pressure).

    We can introduce for a transistor too a mechanical (or hydrodynamical)
    analogue which itself helps to understand the action mechanism of
    transistor better. Let's construct it as shown in Fig. 12.

    ___________________________________________________
    | * * |
    | | | |
    | ' ' |
    | * * |
    _____| | | |_____
    ' '
    * *
    ^^^^^| | | |^^^^^
    | ' ' |
    | * * |
    | | | |
    | ' ' |
    ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    A B

    Fig. 12. A hydrotransistor

    In this figure some hinged blades are set up one after the other in two
    adjacent surfaces A and B as their cross-section is shown in Fig. 12.
    Suppose that in one type of the above-mentioned hydrotransistor the
    blades
    of the surface A can be opened readily towards B and the blades of B
    can
    be opened readily towards A (Fig. 13(a)) while the blades of each
    surface
    can be opened towards the opposite side hardly (Fig. 13(b)), and in the

    other type the blades of each surface can be opened readily towards the
    side opposite to one in which the other surface is located while being
    able to be opened towards the other surface hardly (Fig. 14).

    ___________________________________________________
    | *---- ----* |
    | |
    | |
    | *---- ----* |
    _____| |_____

    *---- ----*
    ^^^^^| |^^^^^
    | |
    | *---- ----* |
    | |
    | |
    ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    A B

    (a)

    ___________________________________________________
    | * * |
    | /` `\ |
    | ` ` |
    | * * |
    _____| /` `\ |_____
    ` `
    * *
    ^^^^^| /` `\ |^^^^^
    | ` ` |
    | * * |
    | /` `\ |
    | ` ` |
    ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    A B

    (b)

    Fig. 13. How a hydrotransistor of a type works.

    ___________________________________________________
    | ----* *---- |
    | |
    | |
    | ----* *---- |
    _____| |_____

    ----* *----
    ^^^^^| |^^^^^
    | |
    | ----* *---- |
    | |
    | |
    ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    A B

    (a)

    ___________________________________________________
    | * * |
    | `\ /` |
    | ` ` |
    | * * |
    _____| `\ /` |_____
    ` `
    * *
    ^^^^^| `\ /` |^^^^^
    | ` ` |
    | * * |
    | `\ /` |
    | ` ` |
    ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
    A B

    (b)

    Fig. 14. How a hydrotransistor of the other type works.

    Let's construct the hydrocircuit of Fig. 15 using the hydrotransistor
    of
    the type shown in Fig. 13.

    ___________________________________________________
    | *---- * |
    | `\ |
    | ` |
    | *---- * |
    _________| `\ |_________
    | ` |
    | *---- * |
    | |^^| `\ |^^| |
    | | | ` | | |
    | | | *---- * | | |
    | | | `\ | | |
    | | | ` | | |
    | | ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^| |^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ | |
    | __|__() v A | | B ,--> | |
    | ^^|^^() ,-> | | /` _____ | |
    | | /` .,-,. | | ` /' ; '\ | |
    | | /` | `\ | |_______/` | `\_____| |
    | ^^^^^^^^^` ---*--- `^^^^^^^ ----*---- |
    | | | |
    '-------------------------------------------------'-----------------'
    a b

    Fig. 15. A hydrocircuit containing a hydrotransistor.

    When the valve is off and the pumps a and b are on we have only a slow
    clockwise water current in the right loop. But when the valve is on the

    clockwise water current will begin in the left loop and will be
    accelerated
    gradually and little by little the water will gain such (kinetic)
    energy
    that the blades of A will be opened completely and the accelerated and
    energetic water will force itself onto the blades of B too, causing
    them
    to be opened more and to let more water pass into the right loop and
    circulate clockwise. A hydrocircuit containing a hydrotransistor of
    the
    other type will have a function similar to what we explained previously
    about the electric transistor analogou with it.

    Now suppose that the hydrocircuit shown in Fig. 15 have no middle tube.

    In such a case is it possible for the water to be accelerated gradually
    after switching the valve on until the same intensity of current is
    obtained that would be obtained if the middle tube existed? The answer
    is negative because when there is no middle tube the weak (or slow)
    clockwise water current produced in the circuit will soon reach an
    equilibrium state in which both the current intensity of the circuit
    and
    the amount of opening of the blades of B will remain constant on some
    small values. (The situation is quite similar to the right single loop
    of Fig. 15 itself in which there will be a small constant clockwise
    current in the loop corresponding to a small opening of the blades of B
    when the valve is switched off.) But the existence of the middle tube
    and
    the above mentioned mechanism cause the clockwise water current of the
    left loop to gain (kinetic) energy as much as possible and then to rush

    onto the blades of B opening them noticeably with its huge energy.

    Hamid V. Ansari

    My email address: ansari18109<at>yahoo<dot>com


    The contents of the book "Great mistakes of the physicists":

    0 Physics without Modern Physics
    1 Geomagnetic field reason
    2 Compton effect is a Doppler effect
    3 Deviation of light by Sun is optical
    4 Stellar aberration with ether drag
    5 Stern-Gerlach experiment is not quantized
    6 Electrostatics mistakes; Capacitance independence from dielectric
    7 Surface tension theory; Glaring mistakes
    8 Logical justification of the Hall effect
    9 Actuality of the electric current
    10 Photoelectric effect is not quantized
    11 Wrong construing of the Boltzmann factor; E=h<nu> is wrong
    12 Wavy behavior of electron beams is classical
    13 Electromagnetic theory without relativity
    14 Cylindrical wave, wave equation, and mistakes
    15 Definitions of mass and force; A critique
    16 Franck-Hertz experiment is not quantized
    17 A wave-based polishing theory
    18 What the electric conductor is
    19 Why torque on stationary bodies is zero
    A1 Solution to four-color problem
    A2 A proof for Goldbach's conjecture
     
  2. Guest

    You need to elaborate a bit more.
     
  3. Don Bowey

    Don Bowey Guest

    Snip

    <G> means go away.
     
  4. Sam Wormley

    Sam Wormley Guest

    You'd be better of going to a library and leaning some
    physics.
     
  5. Language problems or are you trying to make a fool of yourself?

    w.
     
  6. Uncle Al

    Uncle Al Guest

    wrote:
    [snip 1100 lines of crap]

    Your ignorance, incompetence, and psychosis are not of interest to the
    world at large. Quite the contrary. You are not even an interesting
    laughingstock.

    http://www.mazepath.com/uncleal/sunshine.jpg
    <http://www.albinoblacksheep.com/flash/youare.swf>
     
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