Actuality of the electric current

Discussion in 'Electronic Basics' started by [email protected], Sep 12, 2005.

1. Guest

The terminology used in this article:
[] indicates subscript.
~A means the vector A.
<four> means 4.

9 Electric current similar to water current
Ed 01.12.31 -----------------------------------------
Abstract
--------
A perfect comparison between a closed circuit of water current and a
closed
circuit of electric current is made and Ohm's law is obtained in this
manner and it is shown that, contrary to the current belief, existence
of
conduction current is not because of the existence of any electric
field
in the conductor, and the linear relation ~J=g~E cannot be valid. The
relaxation time (necessary for the current to reach its final speed)
and
the final speed (drift velocity) of the current are obtained in the
above-mentioned manner, and it is shown that, contrary to what is
believed
at present, both of them are independent of the chosen standard unit
charge (eg electron charge or coulomb) and its mass. It is also shown
that, contrary to the current belief, alternating current is steady.
We also prove the existence of a kind of resistance arising from the
configuration of the circuit. Action mechanism of transistor is
explained
and a hydrodynamical analogue for it is introduced: both confirming the
material presented earlier.

I. Introduction
---------------
What is presently propounded as the existence cause of an elrectric
conduction current in a conductor is the existence of some electric
field
arising from the power supply (sourcs) in the conductor and the
response
of the conductor to this field in the form of producing current density
(eg
in the form of ~J=g~E for an ohmic material). In other words it is
thought
that existence of the conduction current necessitates existence of an
electrostatic field porducing it, and also existence of the potential
difference necessitates existence of an electrostatic field causing it.

And then an entire similarity is considered between the electrostatics
and
the subject of electric current, eg as in the electrostatics, the curl
of
the above mentioned field is considered equal to zero in the conductor
and
then eg it is tried that a conduction problem to be solved in the same
way
as an electrostatic problem (by obtaining appropriate solution to
Laplace's
equation (see Foundations of Electromagnetic Theory by Reitz, Milford
and
Christy, Addison-Wesley, 1979)).

In this article considering the entire similarity existent between the
electric current and mechanical current of water it is shown that,
really,
existence of the conduction current does not necessitate existence of
any
electrostatic field in the conductor (or wire) carrying the current,
and
the potential difference here is other than the potential difference in
the
electrostatics, and in this manner we obtain Ohm's law.

II. Water circuit and Ohm's law
-------------------------------
Consider the water circuit shown in Fig. 1.

__________________________________________________
| ,---------------------------------, |
| | | |
| | |^^^^` `^^^^^|
| | ||~| |~| |
| | || | | | |
| | || | | | |
| | || | | | |
| | || | | | |
| | || | | | |
| | || | | | |
| | || | | | |
| | _ ||_| |_| |
| | /\`|`/\ |____ _____|
| `-----------|--`+`--|-------------' |
| <------ /`|`\ |
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^'

Fig. 1. Schematic figure of a water circuit.

This circuit is a closed tube full of water set on a horizontal level
which
its water is being forced to circulate by a pump in the tube.

Suppose that the pump is switched off and the water is motionless. We
want
to see what happens when the pump is switched on. By switching the pump
on,
its blades exert force on the water particles adjacent to them, and
these
particles transfer this force to other particles, and altogether the
water
gains speed gradually. In other words the energy transferred from the
pump
to the water immediately after switching the pump on causes increase in
the
kinetic energy of the water, ie the energy of the pump is conserved as
increase in the kinetic energy of the water. But does the water in each

cycle conserve the energy received from the pump as the increase in the

kinetic energy of itself? If so, we must expect an infinite speed for
the
water after elapsing of enough time, while we know that this is not the
case
and after some time the speed of water reaches a constant limit while
the
pump is still in operation and is giving the water more and more
energy.
So, where does the energy of the pump, which no longer is conserved as
increase in the kinetic energy of the water, go? The answer is that
this
energy is dissipated as heat in different parts of the circuit and the
conservation law of energy remains consistent.

Let's see how every part of the circuit changes the energy of the pump
into
heat when the circulation speed of the water in the circuit has reached
the
constant limit. Imagine a definite drop of the water just when a blade
of
the pump is directly exerting force on it. This drop is propelled by
this
force (but since we have considered the situation of the constant speed
of
the water, this drop does not accelerate due to this force). When the
drop
has been pushed forward a little, the blades of the pump directly exert
force on another equivalent drop which transfers this force directly to
the
previous pushed forward drop. In this same manner it is seen that the
pump
directly and indirectly exerts force on the first drop during its
circulation in the circuit. Since, exerting this force on the drop, the

drop is displaced, this force (being exerted by the pump) performs work
on
the drop. Therefore, the energy of the pump given to the drop is this
same
work performed on the drop which we show it by V and attribute it to
some
potential difference between two relevant points of the circuit (we
mean by
the "potential difference" the work performed on this (standard)
definite
drop by the above mentioned exerted force during the displacement
between
the two points). But we know that this work does not increase the
kinetic
energy of the drop. Thus, what occurs to this work which according to
the
conservation law of energy does not disappear? The answer is that this
work
appears in the form of heat arising from the friction, ie heat arising
from the opposition of the drop to the drops in front of it which
exerting
opposite force (and consequently performing negative work) try to
prevent
the drop from accelerating.

Now let's see how much energy of the pump in every part of the circuit
changes into the heat when the circulation speed of the water in the
circuit has reached the constant limit. Suppose that a part of the
circuit
is as shown in Fig. 2 in which the arrow shows the direction of the
water
flow (or current).

/^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^/^^^\
,`.` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` ` `,``/^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^/^\
A[1]( . ( ( ---------> ( )A[2]
`, ' . . . . . . . . . . .`,.\__________________________\_/
\,________________________\,_,/ l[2]
l[1]

Fig. 2. Water current in the two tubes is the same, but the force
exerted on a drop in the part l[2] is A[1]/A[2]fold.

Suppose that the two lengths l[1] and l[2] are equal. We want to see
what the
magnitude of the above mentioned force (arising from the pump) exerted
on the
above mentioned standard drop will be in the part l[2] if this force is
F in
the part l[1]. If only the tube shown by the dotted line, which its
cross section is equal to A[2] and is positioning just opposite to the
tube
l[2], was to be displased exerting force on the water of the tube l[2],
the
above mentioned force in the part l[2] would be still the same F. But
the
dotted tube is not the sole one displacing, and it is obvious that all
the
water of the tube l[1] will be displaced entering the tube l[2],
because
the two tubes l[1] and l[2] are in series and the water current, which
we
show it as I, is the same in each. The whole tube l[1] contains, in
number,
A[1]/A[2] tubes each equivalent to the tube l[2], and the situation is
similar to when this number of tubes are set in series and transferring
their
forces to each other finally exert their forces on the tube l[2] (see
Fig. 3).

/^^^^^^^^^^^/^\/^^^^^^^^^^^/^\/^^^^^^^^^^^/^\ /^^^^^^^^^^^/^\
( ( ( ( ( ( )....( ( )
\___________\_/\___________\_/\___________\_/ \___________\_/
l[2]

Fig. 3. Forces of A[1]/A[2] tubes are added together,
exerted on the tube l[2].

It is obvious that in this state the above mentioned force exerted on
the
mentioned drop in the part l[2] is equal to (A[1]/A[2])F. Since the
ratio of
this force to the force exerted on the drop in the part l[1] (ie F) is
equal
to A[1]/A[2], we conclude that the force exerted on the standard drop
is
inversely proportional to the cross-section of the part of the tube in
which
the drop is located. Therefore also the work performed by the mentioned
force exerted on the drop is inversely proportional to the
cross-section of
the part of the tube in which the drop is located, and since we know
that
this work is proportional to the length of the part of the tube having
a
constant cross-section which the drop must travel, altogether this
work is proportional to l/A in which l is the length of the part of the

circuit that has the constant cross-section A. In other words this part
of
the circuit dissipates as heat some energy of the pump which is
proportional
to l/A.

It was cleared that in series parts of the circuit everywhere the ratio
l/A
was more, some more energy of the pump would be dissipated as heat.
Thus the
ratio l/A is indication of the resistance to the water current in that
part
of the circuit, and we define it, when multiplied by a definite
constant
coefficient c, as "resistance" in a water circuit indicating it by R.
Therefore, we showed if the current (I) was constant (which this
occurred
when the resistances were in series), then the potential difference
between
the two ends of a resistance (V) would be proportional to the
resistance
(R=cl/A).

Now consider some part of the circuit as shown in Fig. 4.

---------------------------------
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . r. . . . . . . .
. . __________________________. .
. .|__________________________| .
. . . . . . . . q. . . . . . . .
. . __________________________. .
. .|__________________________| .
_________________p_______________

Fig. 4. The work performed on a drop being transferred from an end
to the other end is independent of whether the path is p,
q, or r.

The work performed on the drop by the above mentioned force when
passing
this part of the circuit, is independent of the choice of the path p, q
or r, but the water current in these three paths is proportional to
their
cross-sections. As we can see the amount of prevention of p is more
than
of q, and of q is more than of r. Thus the criterion which we obtain in
this
state for the resitance is the same proportion of it to the inverse of
the
cross-section, and since l is the same for the parallel resistances in
this
state, the same definition of R=cl/A is still true for resistance.
Therefore,
we showed if the potential difference (V) was constant (which this
occurred
when the resistances were in parallel), then the current in each
resistance
(I) would be inversely proportional to the resistance (R=cl/A).

Now suppose that the mass of our standard drop is m and suppose that
the
opposing force (of the other drops on the way in the circuit), which as
we
explained prevent the drop from accelerating, is proportional to the
velocity of the drop with the proportion coefficient -G (it is obvious
that
G is proportional to m, because the bigger the drop, the more the
retarding
force is). In this state supposing that the force exerting on the drop
due
to the pump is F and the speed of the drop is v we have the following
equation of motion:

mdv/dt = F-Gv (1)

When the speed of the drop (ie the speed of the water) has become
constant,
we have dv/dt=0 and consequently v=F/G, ie v is proportional to F, and
since
in a constant resistance, v is proportional to I and F is proportional
to V,
we conclude that if the resistance (R) is constant then the current (I)
will
be proportional to the potential (V).

In summary, we showed," If I is constant, then R will be proportional
to V,
and if V is constant, then R will be proportional to 1/I, and if R is
constant, then I will be proportional to V ". We conclude from these
three
deductions that R is proportional to V/I which is the same famous
relation
of Ohm's law in the ohmic electric circuits.

Here it is opportune to obtain the complete solution of the equation
(1).
This will be v(t)=(1/G)F(1-exp(-Gt/m)) if the initial condition is
v[0]=0.
Therefore, the relaxation time is <tau>=m/G. Since as we said G is
proportional to m, the relaxation time <tau> is independent of m.
Likewise,
since the above mentioned force F exerted on the mass m (arising from
the
pump) is obviously proportional to the mass m, the final speed of the
drop
v=F/G, in which both F and G are proportional to m, is also independent
of m.
In other words both the relaxation time, ie the time that the water
speed
requires to reach its constant limit (see the beginning of this
article),
and the final speed of the current, as it is expected, are independent
of
what the bigness or mass of our standard drop is.

As it is quite obvious there is a thorough similarity between the above

water circuit and an electric closed circuit in which the one coulomb
unit
charge plays the role of the above mentioned standard drop, and in fact
in electric circuits a quite similar event occurs, not as it is
supposed
at present an electrostatic field in the wires of the circuit arising
from
the battery causes flowing of the electric current in the electric
circuit!
The only role of the power supply, eg the battery, (similar to the role
of
the water pump) is putting into circulation the current of valence
electrons
of the wires using chemical reactions or electromagnetic effects or
....,
and nothing else; not producing electrostatic field which necessitates
existence of electric net charge assembly which really does not exist.

The fact is that it is thought erroneously that wherever there exist
electric conduction current (I) and potential difference (V), they
should
have been produced because of the existence of some electrostatic field

there, while this is not the case for the electric current flowed by a
power
supply, eg a battery, in a closed circuit, but, quite like in the above

mentioned water circuit, this is only transferring of the force exerted
on
the electrons in the battery (or in other power supplies) which causes
their motion throughout the closed circuit, not existence of any
electrostatic field in the wires. Besides, the potential difference,
by which we mean the amount of work performed on one coulomb of
electric
charge (or on a standard drop) when being transferred from one point to
another point, is not produced necessarily because of an electrostatic
field,
but as we saw the above mentioned forces exerted by the battery and
transferred through the train of electrons can produce it.

For better understanding of the above material, actuality of conduction

has been presented in a simple manner in the 12th article of this book.

Attention to this point is also interesting that as we reasoned
beforehand
(when discussing the complete solution of Equation (1)), the relaxation
time
<tau> and the final speed v, both of the standard charge, are
independent
of the mass (and also of the charge) of the (standard) charge chosen as

the unit charge (and then eg contrary to what is current do not depend
on
the mass or charge of the electron), and only depend on the kind of the

conductor, because G depends on it.

Now let's see whether really the linear relation ~J=g~E is satisfied or
not
when the electrostatic field ~E is exerted in an ohmic conductor
causing
production of temporary current density ~J (which eventually leads to
proper distribution of charge in this conductor such that the field
will
vanish inside it being normal to its surface on its surface). Consider
a
point inside the conductor in a time when the electrostatic field has
not
been exerted yet. The valence electrons are stationing themselves
beside
their atoms. Now consider the moment that an electrostatic field is
exerted
in this point. Certainly this is not the case that immediately after
exertion
of the field in this point, without elapsing any time, current density
~J
becomes flowing in this point. It is quite obvious that a time interval
is
necessary for the valence electrons to separate from their atoms and
becoming flowing produce the current density. Just at the beginning of
this
interval, while there exists the field ~E in this point, there is no
current
there (ie ~J is zero). After elapsing a fraction of the mentioned time
interval, some current becomes flowing (ie ~J reaches a fraction of its

maximum), and since this very amount of current accomplishes a fraction
of
the final distribution of charge (which will make the field vanish
inside
the conductor), the field ~E is also decreased becoming less than its
maximum (approaching zero). This process continues until when the
current
reaches its maximum which is simultaneous with a more decreased field.
After then both ~E and ~J will be decreased approaching zero.
In summary we can see the process of the simultaneous changes of ~E and
~J
schematically in Fig. 5.

A
| A
| | A
| | | A
| | | | A
~E | | | | | .

A A
A | | A
~J . | | | | .

Fig. 5. Schematic diagram of the simultaneous time-changes of ~J and
~E.

What can be deduced definitely is that ~E and ~J don't have any linear
relation in the form of ~J=g~E with the constant coefficient g, even
for
the ohmic mediums.

III. Whether alternating current is not steady
----------------------------------------------
We have the equation of continuity <round><rho>/<round>t+<del>.~J=0.
Steady
current is a current in which, passing the time, concentration of
charge in
each point does not alter, or in other words the charge is not
condensible or
expansible, and then it is necessary that <round><rho>/<round>t to be
zero
for steady currents which according to the equation of continuity it is
also
necessary that <del>.~J=0 for these currents. But we should notice that
in
a steady current it is not necessary that the current has also a
particular
form, ie it is not necessary that <round>~J/<round>t=~0 for a steady
current.
Unfortunately this matter is not observed in many of the textbooks and
circuits carrying steady currents are considered equivalent to direct
current
circuits with this wrong conception that alternating currents are not
steady,
while according to the above-mentioned point although in an alternating
current circuit <round>~J/<round>t is not ~0, the alternating current
is
certainly steady, because in a closed circuit, including the power
supply,
carrying an alternating current, valence electrons of the circuit
itself
(not the external electrons added to the circuit) only alternately
change
direction of their circulation in the circuit, while, passing the time,
the
charge density is constant (and in fact equal to zero) in each point.
The
situation is quite like a closed tube full of water which its water is
oscillating in the tube because of the alternating change in the
direction
of pumping the water by a pump installed in the tube as a part of it.

IV. Resistance due to the configuration of the circuit
------------------------------------------------------
We intend to prove the existence of another kind of electrical
resistance.
This resistance is arising from the form of the current path.
Current-carrying electrons are compelled to move within the boundaries
of
the current-carrying wire in order to cause the electric current. Thus,
naturally, the form, or in other words, the configuration of the
current path
can cause a resistance on the path of the current that is other than
Ohm's
resistance, discussed above, arising from the nature of the current
path
(wire). The cause of this resistance is the mechanical stresses due to
the
collisions of the electrons with the materials of the current path and
their
pressures against these materials (the amount of which depends on the
form
of the current path). The situation is similar to the familiar case of
a
conductor having an excess electric charge: in this state the charge
will
be gathered on the external surface of the conductor and will exert an
outward normal force (or an outward pressure) on the surface that (this

force or pressure) will be canceled out by the mechanical stresses of
the
material of the (surface of the) conductor.

Attention to the following example will clarify the issue. Consider a
part of
a current-carrying wire (from a circuit) (Fig. 6(a)). (Suppose that the
arrow
shows the direction of the motion of the electrons.) Make a loop from
this
part as shown in Fig. 6(b) such that firstly the part ab of the path of
"going" (related to the left (entrance) branch) of the loop and the
part
ab of the path of "backing" (related to the right (exit) branch) of the

loop are very close together but without any contact (at present), and
secondly these two parts of the "going" and "backing" paths (ie ab's)
are
quite parallel to each other.

___________________________________________________________________
( ) -----------------> )
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
(a)

____ ...... ____
_-'`` <----- ``'-_
./` _,--''''''''''''--,_ `\.
/ /' `\ \
,` /` `\ `,
| | | |
` \ / '
`\ `\. ./' /`
_____`-____`_-_.________ ..--'` _-`_____
( ) -----> __,-' -----> )
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^````^^^^^^^^^^^^^
a b

(b)

Fig. 6. The current-carrying looped wire makes
the electron move in the loop.

It is obvious that the current in the part ab of each of the "going"
and
"backing" paths is still from left to right having the same amount of
the
circuit current.

Now let's make these two parts (ab's) in (gentle) contact with each
other.
What is the situation of the current in this double part of ab now? If
the
(above-mentioned) resistance arising from the configuration of the wire
did not exist, the most correct answer would be that we should not
expect
any alteration and as the path of the current would have become double
in
the distance between a and b (being both the "going" and "backing"
paths)
the current would be two times more than the general current of the
circuit
(becasuse of the general current of the circuit both in the "going" and
"backing" paths of ab). But certainly this is not the case completely,
and
due to the contact of the two "going" and "backing" parts of ab a part
of
the previously mentioned stresses will be redistributed (trying to
become
minimum) and then the above-mentioned resistance, arising from the
configuration, will change and then the current in the loop and also in

the common part of ab will be other than the case before the contact;
the
quite clear reason for this statement is that when the two parts of ab
are
in contact we expect in principle that because of the positioning of a
before b the current in the loop to be counterclockwise (from a to b)
not
clockwise (from b to a) as before the contact.

Now imagine that these parts of ab are welded together, and in the
distance
between a and b we have only a single wire with a thickness equal to
the
wire thickness in other parts of the circuit (and loop). In this state
if we
want to visualise the situation just before the contact of the two
"going"
and "backing" parts of ab as one we explained above, we must say that
before
the above-mentioned gentle contact the cross-section of the circuit in
the
"going" part of ab and also in the "backing" part of ab is half of the
cross-section in other parts of the circuit, then the speed of the
electrons
in each of the two "going" and "backing" parts of ab is twice as more
as the
electrons speed in other parts of the circuit. Now, if these two
slenderized
"going" and "backing" parts of ab are to be brought into contact with
each other (welded together) and also if the currents are not to be
changed,
the situation will be as shown in Fig. 7, ie as we see in this figure,
according to the above reasoning assuming ineffectiveness of the
configuration on how the current is distributed, we expect that the
current
in the part ab of the circuit to be twice as more as the general
current of
the circuit halh of which, of course, will be canceled as the "backing"
(counterclockwise) current in the loop.

_.,--''''''''''''''''''''--,._
_,-' <----- `-,_
/ _.--'''``````````````'''--._ \
,` /` `\ ',
| | | |
`, \_ _/ ,`
\ `'--..,______________,..--'` /
`'-,__ -----> __,-'`
/^\^^^^^^^^^^^^` -----> `^^^^^^^^^^^^\
\ / -----> _,--'``````````````'--,_ -----> /
```````````````` a b ``````````````

Fig. 7. What is the situation of current in the part ab and in the
loop?

It is obvious of course that this won't be the case in practice,
because,
as a rule, as we said, we expect in principle that because of the
positioning
of the point a before b in the current path the current in the loop to
be
(clockwise) from a to b.

The conclusion we can decisively draw is that, anyway, the inclination
existent in the circuit to produce a counterclockwise current in the
loop before the contact of the two previously separated parts of ab,
now after the contact (or welding of the two parts), depending on the
configuration of the current-carrying wire of the loop relative to the
configuration of the main wire of the circuit, will have a noticeable
effect
on the current which as a rule is expected to be clockwise in the loop
(because of the point a being before b); and, in practice, the current
in the
loop may be even counterclockwise, even with little current, depending
on
the case; ie in other words we can have a negative resistance (of the
configuration kind) causing the current in the part between a and b to
be
more than the general current of the circuit. We have pointed to such a
case
in the 8th article of this book. We can also try the experiment
suggested
in Fig. 8 in order to see whether the current in the loop is clockwise
or
counterclockwise, and with what current.

____________________
_-'`` ``'-_
./` _,--''''''''''''''''''--,_ `\.
/ /' `\ \
,` /` `\ `,
| | | |
` \ / `
`\ `\. ./` /`
__________-. ``--..______________..--`` _-`
----> __,-'
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^| |^^^^^````
a | |b
| |
| |
| |
| |

Fig. 8. Is the current in the loop clockwise or counterclockwise?

V. Action mechanism of transistor
---------------------------------
As a general confirmation of the mechanism presented in this article
for
the resistance arising from the configuration of the current path and
also
of the validity of the comparison made between the electric current and
water current we shall proceed to describe the action mechanism of
transistor in this section.

We know that some different materials gather electrostatic charge when
robbed with each other. Consider two typical materials of this kind and
call them 1 and 2. Assume that some electrons will flow from 1 to 2
when
they are brought into contact. Important for us in this discussion is
the
tendency (due to any reason, eg the molecular structure of the
materials)
existent in the contact between 1 and 2 to cause the electrons to flow
from 1 to 2.

Now let's connect the negative pole of a battery to 1 and its positive
pole to 2. The battery tends to make the electrons flow from its
negative
pole to its positive pole in a circuit external to the battery a part
of
which is the battery itself. Such a flow will be from 1 to 2
considering
the above-mentioned connecting manner. But as we said, regardless of
the
stimulation of the battery, the materials 1 and 2 themselves have a
tendency to establish an electron current from 1 to 2. Thus, it is
obvious
that the battery will establish a current of electrons, from 1 to 2, in
the circuit without encountering much resistance (due to the junction
1-2).

But when the negative pole of the battery is connected to 2 and its
positive
pole is connected to 1, the battery as before wants to produce a
current of
electrons from its negative pole to its positive pole in the circuit a
part
of which is the battery itself, and this necessitates flow of electrons
from 2 to 1 which is opposite to the natural tendency of the junction
1-2;
thus, the electron current of the circuit will encounter much
resistance
at the junction 1-2. In other words for prevailing over this additional

resistance in order to have a current with the same intensity as before
in the circuit it is necessary to use a battery with a higher voltage.

Let's show the tendency of a junction to establish a current of
electrons
by an arrow in the direction of this tendency. Suppose that we have two
adjacent junctions of the above-mentioned type (having natural tendency
to make the electrons flow) but with two opposite directions of
tendency
in a single block; see Fig. 9. We name such a block as transistor.

<== ==> ==> <==
_________________________ _________________________
| | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
| 1 | 2 | 3 | or | 1 | 2 | 3 |
| | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
| | | | | | | |
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
(a) (b)

Fig. 9. Two types of transistor.

Let's construct a circuit as shown in Fig. 10 using a transitor of the
type (a) in Fig. 9, two batteries, some connecting wires and an on/off
switch.

==> <==
_________________________
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
,---------------| 1 | 2 | 3 |---------------,
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
\ ^^^^^^^^^^^^|^^^^^^^^^^^^ |
`\. a | b |
| | |
| | |
| | | | |
'--------| |----------------'------------| ... |--------'
| c |
- + - +

Fig. 10. A typical circuit of a transistor of the type (a) in Fig.
9.

When the switch is off we have only a weak clockwise current of
electrons
in the right loop. When the switch if on the clockwise electron current
in the left loop begins and increases until the current has such an
intensity that causes some part of the current previously flowed in the
middle wire to be exerted on (ie to flow in) the right loop through the

junction 2-3 causing increase in the weak current of electrons in this
loop.
And this will be more effective when the material 2 is thinner and
wider
because in such a case the electrons passing through the junction 1-2
will be exerted on (or will be forced onto) the junction 2-3 more
readily
and more effectively.

If we construct the circuit of Fig. 11 using a transistor of the type
(b)
in Fig. 9, we shall observe that while the switch being off there will
be
only a weak counterclockwise current of electrons in the right loop.

<== ==>
_________________________
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
,---------------| 1 | 2 | 3 |---------------,
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
| | | | | |
\ ^^^^^^^^^^^^|^^^^^^^^^^^^ |
`\. a | b |
| | |
| | |
| | | | |
'--------| |----------------'------------| ... |--------'
| c |
+ - + -

Fig. 11. A typical circuit of a transistor of the type (b) in Fig.
9.

And when the switch is on a counterclockwise current of electrons will
begin and increase in the left loop. This current will become such
intense
that eventually a part of the electron current, previously flowed in
the
middle wire at the point c towards 2, now will be exerted on (or will
go into) the right loop causing increase in the weak counterclockwise
current of electrons in this loop. This will be more effective when the

material 2 is thinner and wider because in such a case the electrons
passing through the junction 3-2 will be exerted on (or will be forced
onto) the junction 2-1 more readily and more effectively (causing
increase
in the electron current passing through the left battery which
eventually
will cause more increase in the electron current passing through the
right battery).

Now imagine such an ideal state of the figures 10 and 11 (with switches
being on) that the magnitudes of the upward and downward currents in
the
middle wire are the same and then these currents cancel each other.
In such a state that there is no current in this wire (and a
considerable
current in the whole circuit) we can eliminate this wire from the whole
circuit in principle. But, could we do this before switching on the
switch?
It seems that the answer is negative and the current in a circuit
without
the middle wire cannot increase to the extent accessible by a circuit
with
the middle wire (while the switch being on). If so, we have presented a

practical (or experimental) confirmation of the starter mechanism (ie
the
first current in a loop that increases and eventually causes increase
in
the current in the other loop due to the exertion of the current
pressure).

We can introduce for a transistor too a mechanical (or hydrodynamical)
analogue which itself helps to understand the action mechanism of
transistor better. Let's construct it as shown in Fig. 12.

___________________________________________________
| * * |
| | | |
| ' ' |
| * * |
_____| | | |_____
' '
* *
^^^^^| | | |^^^^^
| ' ' |
| * * |
| | | |
| ' ' |
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
A B

Fig. 12. A hydrotransistor

In this figure some hinged blades are set up one after the other in two
adjacent surfaces A and B as their cross-section is shown in Fig. 12.
Suppose that in one type of the above-mentioned hydrotransistor the
blades
of the surface A can be opened readily towards B and the blades of B
can
be opened readily towards A (Fig. 13(a)) while the blades of each
surface
can be opened towards the opposite side hardly (Fig. 13(b)), and in the

other type the blades of each surface can be opened readily towards the
side opposite to one in which the other surface is located while being
able to be opened towards the other surface hardly (Fig. 14).

___________________________________________________
| *---- ----* |
| |
| |
| *---- ----* |
_____| |_____

*---- ----*
^^^^^| |^^^^^
| |
| *---- ----* |
| |
| |
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
A B

(a)

___________________________________________________
| * * |
| /` `\ |
| ` ` |
| * * |
_____| /` `\ |_____
` `
* *
^^^^^| /` `\ |^^^^^
| ` ` |
| * * |
| /` `\ |
| ` ` |
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
A B

(b)

Fig. 13. How a hydrotransistor of a type works.

___________________________________________________
| ----* *---- |
| |
| |
| ----* *---- |
_____| |_____

----* *----
^^^^^| |^^^^^
| |
| ----* *---- |
| |
| |
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
A B

(a)

___________________________________________________
| * * |
| `\ /` |
| ` ` |
| * * |
_____| `\ /` |_____
` `
* *
^^^^^| `\ /` |^^^^^
| ` ` |
| * * |
| `\ /` |
| ` ` |
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
A B

(b)

Fig. 14. How a hydrotransistor of the other type works.

Let's construct the hydrocircuit of Fig. 15 using the hydrotransistor
of
the type shown in Fig. 13.

___________________________________________________
| *---- * |
| `\ |
| ` |
| *---- * |
_________| `\ |_________
| ` |
| *---- * |
| |^^| `\ |^^| |
| | | ` | | |
| | | *---- * | | |
| | | `\ | | |
| | | ` | | |
| | ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^| |^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ | |
| __|__() v A | | B ,--> | |
| ^^|^^() ,-> | | /` _____ | |
| | /` .,-,. | | ` /' ; '\ | |
| | /` | `\ | |_______/` | `\_____| |
| ^^^^^^^^^` ---*--- `^^^^^^^ ----*---- |
| | | |
'-------------------------------------------------'-----------------'
a b

Fig. 15. A hydrocircuit containing a hydrotransistor.

When the valve is off and the pumps a and b are on we have only a slow
clockwise water current in the right loop. But when the valve is on the

clockwise water current will begin in the left loop and will be
accelerated
gradually and little by little the water will gain such (kinetic)
energy
that the blades of A will be opened completely and the accelerated and
energetic water will force itself onto the blades of B too, causing
them
to be opened more and to let more water pass into the right loop and
circulate clockwise. A hydrocircuit containing a hydrotransistor of
the
other type will have a function similar to what we explained previously
about the electric transistor analogou with it.

Now suppose that the hydrocircuit shown in Fig. 15 have no middle tube.

In such a case is it possible for the water to be accelerated gradually
after switching the valve on until the same intensity of current is
obtained that would be obtained if the middle tube existed? The answer
is negative because when there is no middle tube the weak (or slow)
clockwise water current produced in the circuit will soon reach an
equilibrium state in which both the current intensity of the circuit
and
the amount of opening of the blades of B will remain constant on some
small values. (The situation is quite similar to the right single loop
of Fig. 15 itself in which there will be a small constant clockwise
current in the loop corresponding to a small opening of the blades of B
when the valve is switched off.) But the existence of the middle tube
and
the above mentioned mechanism cause the clockwise water current of the
left loop to gain (kinetic) energy as much as possible and then to rush

onto the blades of B opening them noticeably with its huge energy.

Hamid V. Ansari

My email address: ansari18109<at>yahoo<dot>com

The contents of the book "Great mistakes of the physicists":

0 Physics without Modern Physics
1 Geomagnetic field reason
2 Compton effect is a Doppler effect
3 Deviation of light by Sun is optical
4 Stellar aberration with ether drag
5 Stern-Gerlach experiment is not quantized
6 Electrostatics mistakes; Capacitance independence from dielectric
7 Surface tension theory; Glaring mistakes
8 Logical justification of the Hall effect
9 Actuality of the electric current
10 Photoelectric effect is not quantized
11 Wrong construing of the Boltzmann factor; E=h<nu> is wrong
12 Wavy behavior of electron beams is classical
13 Electromagnetic theory without relativity
14 Cylindrical wave, wave equation, and mistakes
15 Definitions of mass and force; A critique
16 Franck-Hertz experiment is not quantized
17 A wave-based polishing theory
18 What the electric conductor is
19 Why torque on stationary bodies is zero
A1 Solution to four-color problem
A2 A proof for Goldbach's conjecture

2. Guest

You need to elaborate a bit more.

3. Don BoweyGuest

Snip

<G> means go away.

4. Sam WormleyGuest

You'd be better of going to a library and leaning some
physics.

5. Helmut WabnigGuest

Language problems or are you trying to make a fool of yourself?

w.

6. Uncle AlGuest

wrote:
[snip 1100 lines of crap]

Your ignorance, incompetence, and psychosis are not of interest to the
world at large. Quite the contrary. You are not even an interesting
laughingstock.

http://www.mazepath.com/uncleal/sunshine.jpg
<http://www.albinoblacksheep.com/flash/youare.swf>

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